An Investigation Into Propagation Behavior of the Steam Chamber During Expanding-Solvent SAGP (ES-SAGP)
- Zhanxi Pang (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Lei Wang (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Zhengbin Wu (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Xue Wang (China University of Petroleum, Beijing)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- April 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 413 - 430
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Solvent, Thin heavy oil reservoir, ES-SAGP, Physical simulation, Non-condensate gas
- 34 in the last 30 days
- 93 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and steam and gas push (SAGP) are used commercially to recover bitumen from oil sands, but for thin heavy-oil reservoirs, the recovery is lower because of larger heat losses through caprock and poorer oil mobility under reservoir conditions. A new enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) method, expanding-solvent SAGP (ES-SAGP), is introduced to develop thin heavy-oil reservoirs. In ES-SAGP, noncondensate gas and vaporizable solvent are injected with steam into the steam chamber during SAGD. We used a 3D physical simulation scale to research the effectiveness of ES-SAGP and to analyze the propagation mechanisms of the steam chamber during ES-SAGP. Under the same experimental conditions, we conducted a contrast analysis between SAGP and ES-SAGP to study the expanding characteristics of the steam chamber, the sweep efficiency of the steam chamber, and the ultimate oil recovery. The experimental results show that the steam chamber gradually becomes an ellipse shape during SAGP. However, during ES-SAGP, noncondensate gas and a vaporizable solvent gather at the reservoir top to decrease heat losses, and oil viscosity near the condensate layer of the steam chamber is largely decreased by hot steam and by solvent, making the boundary of the steam chamber vertical and gradually a similar, rectangular shape. As in SAGD, during ES-SAGP, the expansion mechanism of the steam chamber can be divided into three stages: the ascent stage, the horizontal-expansion stage, and the descent stage. In the ascent stage, the time needed is shorter during ES-SAGP than during SAGP. However, the other two stages take more time during nitrogen, solvent, and steam injection to enlarge the cross-sectional area of the bottom of the steam chamber. For the conditions in our experiments, when the instantaneous oil/steam ratio is lower than 0.1, the corresponding oil recovery is 51.11%, which is 7.04% higher than in SAGP. Therefore, during ES-SAGP, not only is the volume of the steam chamber sharply enlarged, but the sweep efficiency and the ultimate oil recovery are also remarkably improved.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||18|
Al-Bahlani, A. M. and Babadagli, T. 2012. Laboratory Scale Experimental Analysis of Steam-Over-Solvent Injection in Fractured Reservoirs (SOS-FR) for Heavy-Oil Recovery. J Pet Sci Eng 84–85 (April): 42–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2012.01.021.
Al-Turki, A. A., Maini B. B., and Gates I. D. 2010. Co-Injection of Non-Condensable Gas Improves ES-SAGD Performance in Shallow Oil Sands Reservoirs With a Small Top Water Zone. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 19–21 October. SPE-137092-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/137092-MS.
Ayodele, O., Nasr, T., Beaulieu, G. et al. 2009. Laboratory Experimental Testing and Development of an Efficient Low-Pressure ES-SAGD Process. J Can Pet Technol 48 (9): 54–61. PETSOC-09-09-54. https://doi.org/10.2118/09-09-54.
Ayodele, O.R., Nasr, T. N., Ivory J. J. et al. 2010. Testing and History Matching of ES-SAGD (Using Hexane). Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anaheim, California, USA, 27–29 May. SPE-134002-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/134002-MS.
Azom, P. N. and Srinivasan, S. 2013. Modeling Coupled Heat Transfer and Multiphase Flow During the Expanding Solvent Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (ES-SAGD) Process. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166357-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/166357-MS.
Butler, R. M. 2001. Some Recent Developments in SAGD. J Can Pet Technol 40 (1): 18–22. PETSOC-01-01-DAS. https://doi.org/10.2118/01-01-DAS.
Butler, R. M., Jiang, Q., and Yee, C. T. 2000. Steam and Gas Push (SAGP)—3; Recent Theoretical Developments and Laboratory Results. Presented at the Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, 14-18 June. PETSOC-99-23. https://doi.org/10.2118/99-23.
Butler, R. M., Jiang, Q., and Yee, C. T. 2001. Steam and Gas Push (SAGP)—4; Recent Theoretical Developments and Laboratory Results Using Layered Models. J Can Pet Technol 40 (1): 54–61. PETSOC-01-01-06. https://doi.org/10.2118/01-01-06.
Darche, G. 2007. Optimal Economic Strategies for SAGDþSolvent Processes. Presented at the 14th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, 22–24 April, Cairo, Egypt. http://www.earthdoc.org/publication/download/?publication=6207.
Deng, X., Huang, H., Zhao, L. et al. 2010. Simulating the ES-SAGD Process With Solvent Mixture in Athabasca Reservoirs. J Can Pet Technol 49 (1): 38–46. SPE-132488-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/132488-PA.
Edmunds, N. R. 2013. Observations on the Mechanisms of Solvent-Additive SAGD Processes. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference-Canada, Calgary, 11–13 June. SPE-165419-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/165419-MS.
Ezeuko, C. C., Wang, J. Y. J., and Gates, I. D. 2012. Investigation of Emulsion Flow in SAGD and ES-SAGD. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, 12–14 June. SPE-157830-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/157830-MS.
Frauenfeld, T. W., Jossy, C., Bleile, J. et al. 2008. Experimental and Economic Analysis of the Thermal Solvent and Hybrid Solvent Processes. J Can Pet Technol 48 (11): 55–62. SPE-130445-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/130445-PA.
Frauenfeld, T., Jossy, C., Rispler, K. et al. 2006. Evaluation of the Bottom Water Reservoir VAPEX Process. J Can Pet Technol 45 (9): 29–35. PETSOC-06-09-02. https://doi.org/10.2118/06-09-02.
Gates, I. D. 2007. Oil Phase Viscosity Behavior in Expanding-Solvent Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. J Petr Sci Eng 59 (1–2): 123–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2007.03.006.
Gates, I. D. 2010. Solvent-Aided Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage in Thin Oil Sand Reservoirs. J Petr Sci Eng 74 (3–4): 138–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2010.09.003.
Gates, I. D. and Chakrabarty, N. 2008. Design of the Steam and Solvent Injection Strategy in Expanding Solvent Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. J Can Pet Technol 47 (9): 12–20. PETSOC-08-09-12-CS. https://doi.org/10.2118/08-09-12-CS.
Govind, P. A., Das, S., Srinivasan, S. et al. 2008. Expanding Solvent SAGD in Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, 20–23 October. SPE-117571-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/117571-MS.
Gupta, S. C. and Gittins, S. D. 2006. Christina Lake Solvent Aided Process Pilot. J Can Pet Technol 45 (9): 15–18. PETSOC-06-09-TN. https://doi.org/10.2118/06-09-TN.
Gupta, S. C. and Gittins, S. D. 2007. Effect of Solvent Sequencing and Other Enhancements on Solvent Aided Process. J Can Pet Technol 46 (9): 57–61. PETSOC-07-09-06. https://doi.org/10.2118/07-09-06.
Gupta, S. C. and Gittins, S. 2012. An Investigation Into Optimal Solvent Use and the Nature of Vapor/Liquid Interface in Solvent-Aided SAGD Process With a Semianalytical Approach. SPE J. 17 (4): 1255–1264. SPE-146671-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/146671-PA.
Gupta, S., Gittins, S., and Picherack, P. 2005. Field Implementation of Solvent Aided Process. J Can Pet Technol 44 (11): 8–13. PETSOC-05-11-TN1. https://doi.org/10.2118/05-11-TN1.
Ivory, J. J., Zheng, R., Nasr, T. N. et al. 2008. Investigation of Low Pressure ES-SAGD. Presented at the International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, 20-23 October. SPE-117759-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/117759-MS.
Jaafar, A. E., Otahal, J. M., Shah P. et al. 2013. Key Learnings From a Simulation Study of a Solvent-Assisted SAGD Pilot at Cold Lake. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference-Canada, Calgary, 11–13 June. SPE-165486-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/165486-MS.
Jha, R. K., Kumar, M., Benson, I. et al. 2013. New Insights Into Steam/Solvent-Coinjection-Process Mechanism. SPE J. 18 (5): 867–877. SPE-159277-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/159277-PA.
Ji, D. Q., Yang, S., Zhong, H. et al. 2016. Re-Examination of Fingering in SAGD and ES-SAGD. Presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, 7–9 June. SPE-180708-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180708-MS.
Jiang, H., Deng, X., Huang, H. et al. 2012. Study of Solvent Injection Strategy in ES-SAGD Process. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, 12–14 June. SPE-157838-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/157838-MS.
Kannan, K. and Srinivasan, S. 2014. Analyzing the Reservoir Performance of an Expanding Solvent—Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (ES-SAGD) Process Using a Semi-Analytical Approach. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169124-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169124-MS.
Kar, T., Williamson, M., and Hascakir, B. 2014. The Role of Asphaltenes in Emulsion Formation for Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and Expanding Solvent–SAGD (ES-SAGD). Presented at the SPE Heavy and Extra Heavy Oil Conference: Latin America, Medelli´n, Colombia, 24–26 September. SPE-171076-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171076-MS.
Li, W. Q., Mamora, D. D., and Li, Y. M. 2011. Solvent-Type and -Ratio Impacts on Solvent-Aided SAGD Process. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (3): 320–331. SPE-130802-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/130802-PA.
Nasr, T. N. and Ayodele, O. R. 2006. New Hybrid Steam-Solvent Processes for the Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 5–8 November. SPE-101717-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/101717-MS.
Nasr T. N., Beaulieu G., Golbeck H. et al. 2003. Novel Expanding Solvent-SAGD Process “ES-SAGD”. J Can Pet Technol 42 (1): 13–16. PETSOC-03-01-TN. https://doi.org/10.2118/03-01-TN.
Orr, B. 2009. ES-SAGD: Past, Present and Future. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4-7 October. SPE- 129518-STU. https://doi.org/10.2118/129518-STU.
Sharma, J. and Gates, I. D. 2011. Interfacial Stability of In-Situ Bitumen Thermal Solvent Recovery Processes. SPE J. 16 (1): 56–64. SPE-130050-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/130050-PA.
Stalder, J. L. 2008. Thermal Efficiency and Acceleration Benefits of Cross SAGD (XSAGD). Presented at the International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, 20–23 October. SPE-117244-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/117244-MS.
Venkatramani, A. V. and Okuno, R. 2017a. Characterization of Reservoir Heterogeneity for SAGD and ES-SAGD: Under What Type of Heterogeneity is ES-SAGD More Likely to Lower SOR? Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 9–11 October. SPE-187427-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/187427-MS.
Venkatramani, A. V. and Okuno, R. 2017b. Steam-Solvent Coinjection Under Reservoir Heterogeneity: Should ES-SAGD be Implemented for Highly Heterogeneous Reservoirs? Presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, 15–16 February. SPE-185001-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/185001-MS.
You, N., Yoon, S., and Lee, C. W. 2012. Steam Chamber Evolution During SAGD and ES-SAGD in Thin Layer Oil Sand Reservoirs Using a 2-D Scaled Model. J Ind Eng Chem 18 (6): 2051–2058. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2012.05.026.
Zeidani, M., Maini, B. B., and Chen Z. 2017. ES-SAGD Relative Permeability as a Function of Temperature and Solvent Concentrations. Presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, 15–16 February. SPE-185002-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/185002-MS.