Demulsifier in Injected Water for Improved Recovery of Crudes That Form Water/Oil Emulsions
- Minwei Sun (RERI) | Kristian Mogensen (ENI) | Martin Bennetzen (Maersk) | Abbas Firoozabadi (Reservoir Engr. Research Inst.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- October 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 664 - 672
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- waterflooding, chemical flooding
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 471 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Waterflooding for oil displacement becomes a challenge when water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion forms upon contact of injected water with oil in the porous media. We have recently reported very-high pressure drops and high pressure fluctuations for a number of crudes in waterflooding. In this work, we address the challenge by adding a small amount of a demulsifier in the injected water. The stability of W/O emulsion is affected by many factors, including oil chemistry, brine chemistry, and temperature. We find that the W/O emulsion formation may correlate closely to the low total acid number (TAN). In this work, we report the effectiveness of a demulsifier in significant reduction of pressure drop and elimination of pressure-drop fluctuations. The demulsifier can be dispersed in brine or water, and can be carried by injection fluid as an additive for improved oil recovery. Both micromodel observations and coreflooding results show that W/O-emulsion formation is avoided when 100 ppm demulsifier is injected in the carrier brine. Results also show that there is an increase in oil recovery.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||9|
Abdel-Raouf, M. E. 2012. Factors Affecting the Stability of Crude Oil Emulsions. Croatia: InTech. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/35018.
Alvarado, V., Wang, X., and Moradi, M. 2011. Role of Acid Components and Asphaltenes in Wyoming Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions. Energy & Fuels 25 (10): 4606–4613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef2010805.
Auflem, I., Havre, T., and Sjoblom, J. 2002. Near-IR Study on the Dispersive Effects of Amphiphiles and Naphthenic Acids on Asphaltenes in Model Heptane-Toluene Mixtures. Colloid and Polymer Science 280 (8): 695–700. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00396-002-0660-9.
Hemmingsen, P. V., Silset, A., Hannisdal, A. et al. 2005. Emulsions of Heavy Crude Oils. I: Influence of Viscosity, Temperature, and Dilution. J. Dispersion Science and Technology 26 (5): 615–627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/DIS-200057671.
Hemmingsen, P. V., Kim, S., Pettersen, H. E. et al. 2006. Structural Characterization and Interfacial Behavior of Acidic Compounds Extracted From a North Sea Oil. Energy & Fuels 20 (5): 1980–1987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef0504321.
Khan, M. R. 1996. Rheological Properties of Heavy Oils and Heavy Oil Emulsions. Energy Sources 18 (4): 385–391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00908319608908777.
Kokal, S. L. 2005. Crude Oil Emulsions: A State-of-the-Art Review. SPE Prod & Fac 20 (1): 5–13. SPE-77497-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77497-PA.
McDowell-Boyer, L. M., Hunt, J. R., and Sitar, N. 1986. Particle Transport Through Porous Media. Water Resources Research 22 (13): 1901–1921. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/WR022i013p01901.
McLean, J. D. and Kilpatrick, P. K. 1997a. Effects of Asphaltene Aggregation in Model Heptane-Toluene Mixtures on Stability of Water-in-Oil Emulsions. J. Colloid and Interface Science 196 (1): 23–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1997.5177.
McLean, J. D. and Kilpatrick, P. K. 1997b. Effects of Asphaltene Solvency on Stability of Water-in-Crude-Oil Emulsions. J. Colloid and Interface Science 189 (2): 242–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1997.4807.
Mohammed, R. A., Bailey, A. I., Luckham, P. F. et al. 1993a. Dewatering of Crude Oil Emulsions 1. Rheological Behaviour of the Crude Oil-Water Interface. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 80 (2): 223–235.
Mohammed, R. A., Bailey, A. I., Luckham, P. F. et al. 1993b. Dewatering of Crude Oil Emulsions 2. Interfacial Properties of the Asphaltic Constituents of Crude Oil. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 80 (2–3): 237–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0927-7757(93)80203-Q.
Ostlund, J.-A., Nyden, M., Auflem, I. H. et al. 2003. Interactions Between Asphaltenes and Naphthenic Acids. Energy & Fuels 17 (1): 113–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef020103y.
Rezaei, N. and Firoozabadi, A. 2014. Macro- and Micro-Scale Waterflooding Performances of Crudes Which Form W/O Emulsions Upon Mixing With Brines. Energy & Fuels 28 (3): 2092–2103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef402223d.
Sanchez, L. E. and Zakin, J. L. 1994. Transport of Viscous Crudes as Concentrated Oil-in-Water Emulsions. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 33 (12): 3256–3261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie00036a047.
Schramm, L. L. 1992. Emulsions: Fundamentals and Applications in the Petroleum Industry. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
Sohrabi, M. and Mahzari, P. 2014. Crude Oil/Brine Interactions and Spontaneous Formation of Micro-Dispersions in Low-Salinity Water Injection. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, USA, 12–16 April. SPE-169081-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169081-MS.
Soo, H. and Radke, C. J. 1984. Flow Mechanism of Dilute, Stable Emulsions in Porous Media. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals 23 (3): 342–347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i100015a014.
Sun, T., Zhang, L. Y., Wang, S. et al. 2002. Influence of Demulsifiers of Different Structures on Interfacial Dilational Properties of an Oil-Water Interface Containing Surface-Active Fractions From Crude Oil. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 255 (2): 241–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2002.8661.
Wang, X. and Alvarado, V. 2009. Direct Current Electrorheological Stability Determination of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions. J. Physical Chemistry B 113 (42): 13811–13816. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp9030078.
Wu, S. and Firoozabadi, A. 2011. Effects of Firing and Chemical Treatments on Berea Permeability and Wettability. Energy & Fuels 25 (1): 197–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef1007984.