Mechanistic Modeling of Clay Swelling in Hydraulic-Fractures Network
- Alireza Sanaei (The University of Texas at Austin) | Mahmood Shakiba (The University of Texas at Austin) | Abdoljalil Varavei (The University of Texas at Austin) | Kamy Sepehrnoori (The University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 96 - 108
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Hydraulic fracturing, Conductivity damage, Water-rock interaction, Water salinity, Clay swelling
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 371 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Hydraulic fracturing is the most effective technique used in the oil industry for economical production of hydrocarbon from very-low-permeability reservoirs. Recent experimental studies have indicated a change in hydraulic-fracture (HF) conductivity as the result of the interactions between fracturing fluid and shale matrix. Clay swelling is one of the well-known undesirable interactions of this kind. If clay swelling occurs on the surface of the HF, it can cause major damage to the overall performance of the fracture network. Thus, a detailed understanding of the clay-stability issue is essential for fracturing-fluid selection and operation planning.
Clay-swelling-induced conductivity damage is primarily a function of rock mineralogy, fracturing-fluid composition, and formationbrine salinity. Thus, various levels of clay/water interaction are expected in different shale formations. In this study, we present a mechanistic approach to model clay swelling in various rock mineralogies including Barnett (clay-rich), Eagle Ford (calcite-rich), and Marcellus shales. Subsequently, we investigate the production loss caused by clay swelling in a realistic complex HF network. We used UTCOMP-IPhreeqc, a coupled multiphase reactive-transport simulator developed at the University of Texas at Austin, to comprehensively model this process. The ion hydration and the expansion of electrostatic double layer (EDL) were assumed to be the main clayswelling mechanisms. Surface complexation and ion-exchange reactions were considered to capture the ion diffusion into the electrostatic double layer expansion. In each timestep of the simulation, the calculated volume expansion of clay materials exposed on the fracture surface was used to modify the fracture aperture. To evaluate the performance of a complex HF network after clay-swelling damage, the embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM) was applied.
The simulation results indicated that the degree of clay swelling varies in different shale formations. On the basis of the clay content and the mineralogies that were considered in this work, a significant expansion in electrostatic double layer expansion was observed for the Barnett Shale when fresh water was injected. However, this effect was much lower in Eagle Ford and Marcellus shales. Similarly, the production loss in the HF network was substantial in the Barnett example. The contribution of the fractures far from the producing well in gas production significantly decreased after clay-swelling damage. The pressure-depletion profiles clearly showed the adverse impact of conductivity damage on fracture-network performance. The presented approach provides the capability to mechanistically model the clay stability and to approximate its impact on transport properties of HFs.
|File Size||898 KB||Number of Pages||13|
Abouie, A., Korrani, A. K. N., Shirdel, M. et al. 2016. Comprehensive Modeling of Scale Deposition Using a Coupled Geochemical and Compositional Wellbore Simulator. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 2–5 May. OTC-27072-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/27072-MS.
Ali, M. and Hascakir, B. 2015. Water-Rock Interaction for Eagle Ford, Marcellus, Green River, and Barnett Shale Samples. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA, 13–15 October. SPE-177304-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/177304-MS.
Anderson, R. L., Ratcliffe, I., Greenwell, H. C. et al. 2010. Clay Swelling—A Challenge in the Oilfield. Earth-Science Reviews 98 (3–4): 201–216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2009.11.003.
Appelo, C. A. J. and Wersin, P. 2007. Multicomponent Diffusion Modeling in Clay Systems With Application to the Diffusion of Tritium, Iodide, and Sodium in Opalinus Clay. Environmental Science & Technology 41 (14): 5002–5007. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0629256.
Barati, R. and Liang, J. T. 2014. A Review of Fracturing Fluid Systems Used for Hydraulic Fracturing of Oil and Gas Wells. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 131 (16). https://doi.org/10.1002/app.40735.
Besq, A., Malfoy, C., Pantet, A. et al. 2003. Physicochemical Characterization and Flow Properties of Some Bentonite Muds. Applied Clay Science 23 (5–6): 275–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-1317(03)00127-3.
Binazadeh, M., Xu, M., Zolfaghari, A. et al. 2016. Effect of Electrostatic Interactions on Water Uptake of Gas Shales: The Interplay of Solution Ionic Strength and Electrostatic Double Layer. Energy & Fuels 30 (2): 992–1001. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b02990.
Bolt, G. H., Bruggenwert, M. G. M., and Kamphorst, A. 1976. Adsorption of Cations by Soils. In Soil Chemistry. A. Basic Element, ed. G. H. Bolt and M. G. M. Bruggenwert, 54–90. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Bradbury, M. H. and Baeyens, B. 2002. Sorption of Eu on Na-and Ca-montmorillonites: Experimental Investigations and Modelling With Cation Exchange and Surface Complexation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66 (13): 2325–2334. https://doi.org/10.2118/10.1016/S0016-7037(02)00841-4.
Bradbury, M. H. and Baeyens, B. 2005a. Experimental Measurements and Modeling of Sorption Competition on Montmorillonite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69 (17): 4187–4197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2005.04.014.
Bradbury, M. H. and Baeyens, B. 2005b. Experimental and Modelling Investigations on Na-illite: Acid-base Behavior and the Sorption of Strontium, Nickel, Europium and Uranyl. Paul Scherrer Institut.
Cavalcante Filho, J. S. A., Shakiba, M., Moinfar, A. et al. 2015. Implementation of a Preprocessor for Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling in an IMPEC Compositional Reservoir Simulator. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Houston, 23–25 February. SPE-173289-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/173289-MS.
Chang, Y. B. 1990. Development and Application of an Equation of State Compositional Simulator. PhD dissertation, Austin, Texas, University of Texas at Austin (August 1990).
Charlton, S. R. and Parkhurst, D. L. 2011. Modules Based on the Geochemical Model PHREEQC for Use in Scripting and Programming Languages. Computers & Geosciences 37 (10): 1653–1663. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2011.02.005.
Cha´vez-Pa´ez, M., van Workum, K., de Pablo, L. et al. 2001. Monte Carlo Simulations of Wyoming Sodium Montmorillonite Hydrates. Journal of Chemical Physics 114: 1405–1413. https://doi.org/10.063/1.1322639.
Cinco-Ley, H. and Samaniego-V., F. 1981. Transient Pressure Analysis for Fractured Wells. J Pet Technol 33 (9): 1749–1766. SPE-7490-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/7490-PA.
Civan, F. and Knapp, R. M. 1987. Effect of Clay Swelling and Fines Migration on Formation Permeability. Presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 8–10 March. SPE-16235-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/16235-MS.
Donnan, F. G. and Guggenheim, E. A. 1932. Exact Thermodynamics of Membrane Equilibrium. Z. Phys. Chem. A162: 346–360.
Dzombak, David A. and Morel, Francois M. M. 1990. Surface Complexation Modeling: Hydrous Ferric Oxide. John Wiley & Sons, 450.
Fisher, M. K., Heinze, J. R., Harris, C. D. et al. 2004. Optimizing Horizontal Completion Techniques in the Barnett Shale Using Microseismic Fracture Mapping. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26–29 September. SPE-90051-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/90051-MS.
Grim, R. E. 1953. Clay Mineralogy. McGraw Hill.
Jones Jr., F. O. 1964. Influence of Chemical Composition of Water on Clay Blocking of Permeability. J Pet Technol 16 (4): 441–446. SPE-631-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/631-PA.
Korrani, A. K. N. 2014. Mechanistic Modeling of Low-Salinity Water Injection. PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.
Korrani, A. K. N., Jerauld, G. R., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2016. Mechanistic Modeling of Low-Salinity Waterflooding Through Coupling a Geochemical Package With a Compositional Reservoir Simulator. SPE Res Eval & Eng 19 (1): 142–162. SPE-169115-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/169115-PA.
Krueger, R. F. 1986. An Overview of Formation Damage and Well Productivity in Oilfield Operations. J Pet Technol 38 (2): 131–152. SPE-10029-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/10029-PA.
Missana, T., Garci´a-Gutierrez, M., Fernandez, V. et al. 2002. Application of Mechanistic Models for the Interpretation of Radionuclides Sorption in Clays. Part 1. CIEMAT technical report CIEMAT/DIAE/54610/03. Madrid: CIEMAT.
Missana, T., Garcia-Gutierrez, M., and Alonso, U. 2008. Sorption of Strontium Onto Illite/Smectite Mixed Clays. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 33 (1): S156–S162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2008.10.020.
Newman, A. C. 1987. Chemistry of Clays and Clay Minerals. Vol. 6, 480. Longman Scientific and Technical.
Parkhurst, D. L. and Appelo, C. A. J. 1999. User’s Guide to PHREEQC (Version 2): A Computer Program for Speciation, Batch-Reaction, One-Dimensional Transport, and Inverse Geochemical Calculations.
Parkhurst, D. L. and Appelo, C. A. J. 2013. Description of Input and Examples for PHREEQC Version 3—A Computer Program for Speciation, Batchreaction, One-dimensional Transport, and Inverse Geochemical Calculations.
Shakiba, M. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2015. Using Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) and Microseismic Monitoring Data to Characterize the Complex Hydraulic Fracture Networks. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-175142-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175142-MS.
Tournassat, C. and Appelo, C. A. J. 2011. Modelling Approaches for Anion-Exclusion in Compacted Na-Bentonite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75 (13): 3698–3710. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2011.04.001.
Valko, P. P. and Economides, M. J. 1998. Heavy Crude Production From Shallow Formations: Long Horizontal Wells Versus Horizontal Fractures. Presented at the SPE International Conference on Horizontal Well Technology, Calgary, 1–4 November. SPE-50421-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/50421-MS.
Van Olphen, H. 1963. An Introduction to Clay Colloid Chemistry. Interscience Publishers, J. Wiley and Sons.
Van Olphen, H. 1977. Introduction to Clay Colloid Chemistry. Wiley Interscience. 318.
Young, D. A. and Smith, D. E. 2000. Simulations of Clay Mineral Swelling and Hydration: Dependence Upon Interlayer Ion Size and Charge. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 104 (39): 9163–9170. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp000146k.
Yu, W. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2014. Simulation of Gas Desorption and Geomechanics Effects for Unconventional Gas Reservoirs. Fuel 116: 455–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.08.032.
Zhang, J., Zhu, D., and Hill, A. D. 2016. Water-Induced Damage to Propped-Fracture Conductivity in Shale Formations. SPE Prod & Oper 31 (2): 147–156. SPE-173346-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173346-PA.
Zhou, Z., Gunter, W. D., Kadatz, B. et al. 1996. Effect of Clay Swelling on Reservoir Quality. J Can Pet Technol 35 (7): 18–23. PETSOC-96-07-02. https://doi.org/10.2118/96-07-02.
Zhou, Z. J., Cameron, S., Kadatz, B. et al. 1997. Clay Swelling Diagrams: Their Applications in Formation Damage Control SPE J. 2 (2): 99–106. SPE-31123-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/31123-PA.
Zhu, C. and Anderson, G. 2002. Environmental Applications of Geochemical Modeling. Cambridge University Press, 133–137.