Integration of Pressure Transient Data into Reservoir Models Using the Fast Marching Method
- Chen LI (Texas A&M University) | Michael J. King (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- March 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- fast marching method, sensitivity coefficient, diffusive time of flight, Eikonal equation, pressure transient, drainage volume
- 11 in the last 30 days
- 40 since 2007
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Calibration of reservoir model properties by integration of well-test data remains an important research topic. Well-test data have been recognized as an effective tool to describe transient flow behavior in petroleum reservoirs. It is also closely related to the drainage volume of the well and the pressure-front propagation in the subsurface. Traditional analytic means of estimating reservoir permeability relies on an interpretation of the diagnostic plot of the well pressure and production data, which usually leads to a bulk average estimation of the reservoir permeability. When more detailed characterization is needed, a forward model that is sensitive to the reservoir heterogeneity needs to be established, and a numerical inversion technique is required.
We use the concept of the diffusive time of flight (DTOF) to formulate an asymptotic solution of the diffusivity equation that describes transient flow behavior in heterogeneous petroleum reservoirs. The DTOF is obtained from the solution of the Eikonal equation using the fast marching method (FMM). It can be used as a spatial coordinate that reduces the 3D diffusivity equation to an equivalent 1D formulation. We investigate the drainage-volume evolution as a function of time in terms of the DTOF. The drainage volume might be directly related to the well-test derivative, which can be used in an inversion calculation to calibrate reservoir model parameters.
The analytic sensitivity coefficients of the well-test derivative with respect to reservoir permeability are derived and incorporated into an objective function to perform model calibration. The key to formulating the sensitivity coefficients is to use the functional derivative of the Eikonal equation to derive the analytic sensitivity of the DTOF to reservoir permeability. Its solution is implemented by tracking the characteristic trajectory of the local Eikonal solver within the FMM. The major advantage of calculating the sensitivity coefficients using the FMM is its significant computational efficiency during the iterative inversion process.
This inverse-modeling approach is tested on a 2D synthetic heterogeneous reservoir model and then applied to the 3D Brugge Field, where a single well with constant flow rate is simulated. The well-test derivative is shown to be inversely proportional to the drainage volume and is treated as the objective function for inversion. With an additional constraint to honor the prior model, our inverse-modeling approach will adjust the reservoir model to obtain permeability as a function of distance from the well within the drainage volume. It provides a modification of reservoir permeability both within and beyond the depth of investigation (DOI).
Correction Notice: The preprint version of this paper has been updated from its originally published version to correct Eq. 22 and the text immediately following on page 10. Other text consistency issues were also corrected.
|File Size||7 MB||Number of Pages||21|
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