Laboratory Tests and Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Injection in Chalk With Fracture/Matrix-Transport Mechanisms
- Mohammad Ghasemi (Petrostreamz A/S) | Wynda Astutik (Petrostreamz A/S) | Sayyed Ahmad Alavian (PERA A/S) | Curtis Hays Whitson (PERA A/S and Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Lykourgos Sigalas (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland) | Dan Olsen (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland) | Vural Sander Suicmez (Maersk Oil & Gas A/S)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 122 - 136
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Fracture-Matrix Interaction, CO2 Injection, North Sea stock tank oil (STO), Equation of State (EOS), Molecular Diffusion
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 228 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The main focus of this paper is to present experimental and simulation results that describe carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in a chalk sample with fracture/matrix interaction at reservoir conditions. On the basis of the experiments, simulation models were built to mimic the main transport phenomena, including diffusion, which was found to be particularly important.
The first experiment consisted of a vertically oriented Sigerslev outcrop chalk core, where a single “fracture” was represented by a centralized hole along the core. Both matrix and fracture were initially saturated with a North Sea stock-tank oil (STO) at reservoir conditions. Once the initial conditions were established, CO2 was injected from the top of the fracture and the oil was produced from the bottom.
Injected CO2 diffused into the oil in the matrix and swelled the oil. Once the oil in the fracture was drained, the matrix fed the fracture with oil at decreasing rates. The first experiment lasted up to approximately 24 pore volumes injected (PVinj). The second experiment is similar, but laboratory oil n-C10 was used instead of STO. Laboratory oil and CO2 have very similar densities at the chosen reservoir conditions, which minimizes gravity-driven convective (Darcy) transport and maximizes the effect of diffusion.
Our modeling was conducted with a compositional reservoir simulator. We developed and used a tuned equation-of-state (EOS) model that accounts for proper estimation of the phase and volumetric properties for CO2 mixtures in the STO and n-C10 systems. Automated history matching was used to fit the experimental data. A commercial reservoir simulator could reproduce laboratory results adequately.
Numerical simulations were conducted to match experimental oil-production data by tuning the oil- and gas-diffusion coefficients. Good agreement between the numerical model and the experimental data was obtained. For the n-C10 system, we found that the results were not sensitive to vertical permeability, confirming displacement was dominated by diffusion rather than convective flux.
Verifying the accuracy of modeling the diffusion-dominated processes in a fractured chalk system with CO2 at reservoir conditions has been accomplished. The lesson learned from the experimental and modeling work flow obtained from this study becomes an important step toward modeling an actual fractured chalk/reservoir-oil system undergoing CO2 injection.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Alavian, S. A. and Whitson, C. H. 2010. CO2 EOR Potential in Naturally Fractured Haft Kel Field, Iran. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (4): 720–729. SPE-139528-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/139528-PA.
Christoffersen, K. R. 1992. High-Pressure Experiment with Application to Naturally Fractured Chalk Reservoir. PhD dissertation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Coats, K. H. 1989. Implicit Compositional Simulation of Single-Porosity and Dual-Porosity Reservoirs. Presented at SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, Houston, 6–8 February. SPE-18427-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/18427-MS.
da Silva, F. V. and Belery, P. 1989. Molecular Diffusion in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs: A Decisive Recovery Mechanism. Presented at the 64th SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–11 October. SPE-19672-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/SPE-19672-MS.
Darvish, G. R. 2007. Physical Effects Controlling Mass Transfer in Matrix Fracture System During CO2 Injection into Chalk Fractures Reservoirs. PhD dissertation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Darvish, G. R., Lindeberg, E. G. B., Holt, T. et al. 2006. Reservoir Conditions Laboratory Experiments of CO2 Injection into Fractured Cores. Presented at the 2006 SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Technical and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 12–15 June. SPE-99650-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/99650-MS.
Ghasemi, M., Astutik, W., Alavian, S. A. et al. 2016. Determining Diffusion Coefficients for Carbon Dioxide Injection in Oil-Saturated Chalk by Use of a Constant-Volume-Diffusion Method. SPE J. 22 (2): 505–520. SPE-179550-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/179550-PA.
Grigg, R.B. 2000. Experimental Investigation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in a Fractured System. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Brisbane, Australia, 16–18 October. SPE-64510-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/64510-MS.
Hoteit, H. and Firoozabadi, A. 2009. Numerical Modeling of Diffusion in Fractured Media for Gas-Injection and -Recycling Schemes. SPE J. 14 (2): 323–337. SPE-103292-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/103292-PA.
Jha, R. K., Bryant, S. L., and Lake, L. W. 2008. Effect of Local Mixing on Dispersion. Presented at the 2008 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21–24 September. SPE 115961-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/115961-MS.
Le Romancer, J. F., Defives, D., Kalaydjian, F. et al. 1994. Influence of the Diffusion Gas on the Mechanism of Oil Recovery by Gas Diffusion in Fractured Reservoir. Oral presentation given at the IEA Collaborative Project on Enhanced Oil Recovery Workshop and Symposium, Bergen, Norway, 28–31 August.
Moortgat, J., Firoozabadi, A., Li, Z. et al. 2013. CO2 Injection in Vertical and Horizontal Cores: Measurements and Numerical Simulation. SPE J. 18 (2): 331–344. SPE-135563-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/135563-PA.
Morel, D. D., Bourbiaux, B., Latil, M. et al. 1990. Diffusion Effects in Gas Flooded Light Oil Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the 65th SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, September. SPE-20516-MS.
Perkins, T. K. and Johnston, O. C. 1963. A Review of Diffusion and Dispersion in Porous Media. SPE J. 3 (1): 70–84. SPE-480-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/480-PA.
Petrostreamz. 2015. Pipe-It User Manual, Version 1.5.2. Trondheim, Norway: Petrostreamz.
Robinson, D. B., Peng, D. Y., and Ng, H. Y. 1979. Capabilities of the Peng-Robinson Programs, Part 2: Three-Phase and Hydrate Calculations. Hydrocarb. Process. 58: 269.
Schlumberger. 2012. ECLIPSE 300 User Manual, Version 2012.1. Houston, Texas: Schlumberger.
Sigmund, P. M. 1976. Prediction of Molecular Diffusion at Reservoir Condition. Part 1-Measurement and Prediction of Binary Dense Gas Diffusion Coefficients. J Can Pet Technol 15 (2): 53–62. PETSOC-76-02-05. https://doi.org/10.2118/76-02-05.
Simon, R., Rosman, A., and Zaba, E. 1978. Phase-Behavior Properties of CO2-Reservoir Oil Systems. SPE J. 18 (1): 20–26. SPE-6387-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/6387-PA.
Wilke, C. R. and Chang, P. 1955. Correlation of Diffusion Coefficients in Dilute Solution. AIChE J. 1 (2): 264–270. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690010222.
Wylie, P. L. and Mohanty, K. K. 1999. Effect of Wettability on Oil Recovery by Near-Miscible Gas Injection. SPE Res Eval & Eng 2 (6): 558–564. SPE-59476-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/59476-PA.