Comparison of Strong-Alkali and Weak-Alkali ASP-Flooding Field Tests in Daqing Oil Field
- Hu Guo (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Yiqiang Li (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Fuyong Wang (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Yuanyuan Gu (China University of Petroleum, Beijing)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- May 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 353 - 362
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- field test, scaling, ASP flooding, weak alkali, injection-production capacity
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 421 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding is one of the most-promising enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) technologies. Strong alkali (NaOH) was used in early field tests mainly because of its stronger emulsification ability and wider surfactant range, which can meet the requirements of ultralow interfacial tension (IFT). However, subsequent field tests indicated that the advantages of a strong alkali did not outweigh the disadvantages caused by serious scaling and production-capacity loss. Although a critical comparison of strong alkali ASP (SASP) and weak alkali ASP (WASP) on the basis of field tests is quite difficult and complex, considering the small differences in reservoir characteristics, injected fluid, and operational changes, the two completed field tests in Daqing provided us with valuable and important information.
The petrophysical features of the two field tests were similar. The well spacings and well patterns of the two field tests were critically the same, and the same screening standards and design ideas were followed. The incremental recoveries of WASP and SASP were nearly the same, while WASP had a higher peak oil production than SASP after the injection took effect. WASP was proved to have less liquid-producing-capacity loss than SASP. The emulsification effects of WASP were weaker than those of SASP, which also lowered the difficulty and cost of the treatment of the emulsified fluid. The chromatographic separation was different in the two pilot tests, in which WASP had alleviated chromatographic separation. Breakthrough of the polymer occurred before the alkali followed by the surfactant, and this occurred at 0.06 pore volumes (PV) for SASP but was delayed until 0.13 PV for the WASP flooding. The scaling of SASP was much-more severe than that of WASP, leading to a much-higher treatment cost. The economic performances of the two tests, which are of vital importance in a low-oil-price era, were quite different, and WASP had much-better performance than SASP. The input/output ratios of WASP in B-2-X and SASP in B-1-DD were 1:3.7 and 1:2.3, respectively. The returns on investment (ROIs) of WASP in B-2-X and SASP in B-1-DD were 19.1 and 12.9%, respectively, whereas the financial internal rates of return (FIRRs) after tax were 22.3 and 18.0%, respectively. The average FIRR of local oil-industry projects is 12%. Field tests indicated that WASP is both technically and economically better than SASP under the conditions in the Daqing oil field.
|File Size||957 KB||Number of Pages||10|
Bataweel, M. A. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2011. Minimizing Scale Precipitation in Carbonate Cores Caused by Alkalis in ASP Flooding in High-Salinity/High-Temperature Applications. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 11–13 April. SPE-141451-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/141451-MS.
Chen, G., Wu, X., Yang, Z. et al. 2007. Study of the Effect of Injection Water Quality on the Interfacial Tension of ASP/Crude Oil. J Can Pet Technol 46 (2). PETSOC-07-02-06. https://doi.org/10.2118/07-02-06.
Chen, J. 2013. Study on the Scale Mechanism and the Scale Inhibitor in the ASP Flooding in Daqing Oilfield. PhD dissertation, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China (July 2013).
Cheng, J., Wu, J., and Hu, J. 2014a. Key Theories and Technologies for Enhanced Oil Recovery of Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Flooding. Acta Petrolei Sinica 35 (2): 310–318. https://doi.org/10.7623/syxb201402011.
Cheng, J., Zhou, W., Wang, Q. et al. 2014b. Technical Breakthrough in Production Engineering Ensures Economic Development of ASP Flooding in Daqing Oilfield. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Adelaide, Australia, 14–16 October. SPE-171506-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171506-MS.
Daoshan, L., Mingyi, S., Demin, W. et al. 2009. Chromatographic Separation of Chemicals in Alkaline Surfactant Polymer Flooding in Reservoir Rocks in the Daqing Oilfield. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 20–22 April. SPE-121598-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/121598-MS.
Delshad, M., Choongyong H., Faiz, K. et al. 2013. A Simplified Model for Simulations of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Floods. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 108: 1–9. https://doi.org/1016/j.petrol.2013.04.006.
Fang, W., Jiang, H., Li, J. et al. 2016. A New Experimental Methodology to Investigate Formation Damage in Clay-Bearing Reservoirs. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 143: 226–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.02.023.
Fu, Y. 2011. A Study on Dynamic Development Regulation of Weak Base ASP Flooding in X-2-X Sub-layers. MS thesis, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing, China (July 2011).
Gregersen, C. S., Mahdi, K., and Vladimir, A. 2013. ASP Design for the Minnelusa Formation Under Low-Salinity Conditions: Impacts of Anhydrite on ASP Performance. Fuel 105: 368–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.06.051.
Jiang, J. 2009. A Study of Optimization of Well Pattern Well Space and Principles of Combining Series of Strata for ASP Flooding. MS thesis, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing, China (July 2009).
Jiecheng, C., Dianping, X., and Bai, W. 2008. Commercial ASP Flood Test in Daqing Oil Field. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 3–6 November. SPE-117824-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/117824-MS.
Kazempour, M., Sundstrom, E., and Alvarado, V. 2012. Geochemical Modeling and Experimental Evaluation of High-pH Floods: Impact of Water-Rock Interactions in Sandstone. Fuel 92 (1): 216–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.07.022.
Kazempour, M., Manrique, E. J., Alvarado, V. et al. 2013. Role of Active Clays on Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Formulation Performance in Sandstone Formations. Fuel 104: 593–606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.04.034.
Khan, J. A., Al-Kayiem, H. H., and Aris, M. S. 2015. Stabilization of Produced Crude Oil Emulsion in the Presence of ASP. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 11–13 August. SPE-174671-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174671-MS.
Krumrine, P. H. and Falcone, J. S. Jr. 1987. Beyond Alkaline Flooding: Design of Complete Chemical Systems. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, San Antonio, Texas, 4–6 February. SPE-16280-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/16280-MS.
Li, M., Lin, M., Wu, Z. et al. 2005. The Influence of NaOH on the Stability of Paraffinic Crude Oil Emulsion. Fuel 84 (2–3): 183–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2004.09.001.
Lin, X. 2014. Exploration Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Weak Base ASP Flooding. Unconventional Oil & Gas 2014 (3): 37–42.
Liu, S., Zhang, D., Yan, W. et al. 2008. Favorable Attributes of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding. SPE J. 13 (1): 5–16. SPE-99744-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/99744-PA.
Olajire, A. A. 2014. Review of ASP EOR (Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Enhanced Oil Recovery) Technology in the Petroleum Industry: Prospects and Challenges. Energy 77: 963–982. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.09.005.
Panthi, K., Sharma, H., and Mohanty, K. K. 2016. ASP Flood of a Viscous Oil in a Carbonate Rock. Fuel 164: 18–27. https://doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2015.09.072.
Pingping, S., Jialu, W., Shiyi, Y. et al. 2009. Study of Enhanced-Oil-Recovery Mechanism of Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer Flooding in Porous Media From Experiments. SPE J. 14 (2): 237–244. SPE-126128-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/126128-PA.
Sharma, H., Dufour, S., Pinnawala Arachchilage, G. W. P. et al. 2015. Alternative Alkalis for ASP Flooding in Anhydrite Containing Oil Reservoirs. Fuel 140: 407–420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.09.082.
Sheng, J. J. 2011. Modern Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery: Theory and Practice. Burlington: Elsevier.
Shi, G. 2014. ASP Pilot Test in B-2-X in Daqing Oilfield. MS thesis, Chengdu Science and Technology University, Chengdu, China (July 2014).
Solairaj, S., Britton, C., Kim, D. H. et al. 2012. Measurement and Analysis of Surfactant Retention. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 14–18 April. SPE-154247-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154247-MS.
Southwick, J. G., van den Pol, E., van Rijn, C. H. T. et al. 2016. Ammonia as Alkali for Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Floods. SPE J. 21 (1): 1–9. SPE-169057-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/169057-PA.
Stoll, W. M., Shureqi, H., Finol, J. et al. 2011. Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Flood: From the Laboratory to the Field. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (6): 702–712. SPE-129164-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/129164-PA.
Wang, F. 2007. Research on Oil/Water Separation Specialities and Disposal Technologies in ASP Flooding Produced Water. PhD dissertation, Shanghai Jiaotong Univeisity, Shanghai, China (July 2007).
Wang, D., Liu, C., Wu,W. et al. 2008a. Development of an Ultralow Interfacial Tension Surfactant in Systems With No-Alkali for Chemical Flooding. Presented at the SPE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 20–23 April. SPE-109017-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/109017-MS.
Wang, D., Han, P., Shao, Z. et al. 2008b. Sweep-Improvement Options for the Daqing Oil Field. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (1): 22–26. SPE-99441-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/99441-PA.
Wang, J. 2013. The Research of ASP Development Effect Evaluation in the East of the Fault Block in Beiyi District. MS thesis, Northeast Petroleum University.
Wang, Z., Pang, R., Le, X. et al. 2013. Survey on Injection-Production Status and Optimized Surface Process of ASP Flooding in Industrial Pilot Area. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 111: 178–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2013.09.010.
Wang, Y. 2014. The Field Test Results of ASP Flooding With Weak Alkali in the Secondary Reservoir of Northern Daqing Oilfield. Inner Mongolia Petrochemical Industry 2014 (14): 135–139.
Wu, X., Li, P., Chen, J. et al. 2008. Application of Surfactants With Narrow Equivalent Weight Distribution and Desirable Structure to Daqing ASP Flooding. Presented at the SPE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 20–23 April. SPE-114345-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/114345-MS.
Wu, D, Wang, C., Zhao, F. et al. 2015. Microscopic Structures and Oil/Water Separation Behaviors of Produced Water by ASP Flooding Using Na2CO3, Petroleum Sulfonate and Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide. Fine and Specialty Chemicals 2015 (8): 27–33.
Xu, J. 2014. Economy Analysis of ASP Flooding. Oil-Gasfield Surface Engineering 2014 (10): 98–99.
Yang, Y., Zhou, W., Shi, G. et al. 2011. 17 Years Development of Artificial Lift Technology in ASP Flooding in Daqing Oilfield. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 19–21 July. SPE-144893-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/144893-MS.
Yang, X. 2012. Dynamic Variation Features of Alkalescence-Surfactant-Polymer Pilot Test in B-2-X Daqing Oil Field. Inner Mongolia Petrochemical Industry 2012 (7): 114–116.
Yu, Z. 2013. Reducing Weak Alkali ASP Pump Checking Rate. Inner Mongolia Petrochemical Industry 2013 (14): 47–51.
Zhang, L-h., Xiao, H., Zhang, H-t. et al. 2007. Optimal Design of a Novel Oil-Water Separator for Raw Oil Produced From ASP Flooding. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 59 (3–4): 213–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2007.04.002.
Zhang, Q. and Li, X. 2015. ASP Flooding Input Output Essential Study and Benefit Outlook. Oil-Gasfield Surface Engineering 2015 (9): 14–16.
Zhao, C. and Zhao, Q. 2013. Some Perfect Results of Ten Industrial Tests of ASP Flooding With Weaker Alkaline. Xinjiang Oil & Gas 9 (1): 61–66.
Zhao, F., Ma, Y., Hou, J. et al. 2015. Feasibility and Mechanism of Compound Flooding of High-Temperature Reservoirs Using Organic Alkali. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 135: 88–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.08.014.
Zhu, Y., Yuan, H., Hou, Q. et al. 2010. Synthesis and Properties of Petroleum Sulfonates for Weak Alkali ASP/Alkali-free SP Combination Flooding. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 18–20 October. SPE-133419-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/133419-MS.
Zhu, Y., Hou, Q., Liu, W. et al. 2012. Recent Progress and Effects Analysis of ASP Flooding Field Tests. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 14–18 April. SPE-151285-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/151285-MS.
Zhu, Y., Qingfeng, H., Guoqing, J. et al. 2013. Current Development and Application of Chemical Combination Flooding Technique. Petroleum Exploration and Development 40 (1). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1876-3804(13)60009-9.
Zhu, Y. 2015. Current Developments and Remaining Challenges of Chemical Flooding EOR Techniques in China. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 11–13 August. SPE-174566-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174566-MS.
Zhu, Y., Lei, M., and Zhang, Y. 2015. Effects of Emulsification on Oil Recovery and Produced Liquid Handing in Chemical Combination Flooding. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 11–13 August. SPE-174569-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174569-MS.