Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Surfactants for Field-Scale Enhanced-Oil-Recovery Pilot Projects
- Julian R. Barnes (Shell Global Solutions International) | Diederik W. van Batenburg (Shell Global Solutions International) | M. J. Faber (Shell Global Solutions International) | Carl H. T. van Rijn (Shell Global Solutions International) | Sonja Geib (Shell Global Solutions International) | Sjoerd R. van Kuijk (Shell Global Solutions International) | David Perez Regalado (Shell Global Solutions International) | Tim E. King (Shell Global Solutions US) | Mike J. Doll (Shell Global Solutions US) | Lori E. Crom (Shell Global Solutions US)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 565 - 576
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- surfactants, QA and QC, EOR, phase behaviour, core flood performance, pilot projects
- 25 in the last 30 days
- 96 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding is an enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) technique that involves the injection of a solution of surfactant, alkali, and polymer into an oil reservoir to mobilize and produce the remaining oil. There are several pattern-flood pilots in progress or that will soon be executed to evaluate ASP at a scale relevant to commercial-scale application. The quantities of surfactants needed for these pilots and potential future commercial-scale applications are large (hundreds to thousands of tonnes) and necessitate large-scale manufacture using existing processes and plants for the different manufacturing steps. These operate under slightly different process conditions than those used to make the smaller quantity (50 to 400 kg) of the reference blend used to design the formulation in the laboratory. The upscaling of the surfactant production itself is an essential step to enable field-scale implementation of ASP. To ensure and control the quality of the surfactants produced for pilots with Shell interests, a stage-gated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program was designed and executed. The application of the QA/QC process for a high- and a low-active-matter surfactant-blend concentrate (approximately 60% and 20% active, respectively) is used to illustrate the process.
The early definition of the QA/QC program provided a framework with clearly defined stages for upscaling from laboratory- to large-scale production. The definition of analytical and performance-based laboratory experiments with upfront-defined specifications (minimum and maximum values) and repeatability allowed for clear, unambiguous decisions. Correlations between composition and performance that were developed dependent on pilot-scale production were essential to assure the performance of the larger-scale production. Corefloods, used as the ultimate performance check, showed virtually identical performance for pilot-scale prepared surfactants and surfactants from different large-scale batches.
The paper illustrates that consistent industrial-scale production of surfactants for application in chemical EOR (CEOR) is feasible. To ensure the quality of such surfactant requires a detailed QA/QC program. The successful execution of the QA/QC program for the surfactants for the pattern pilots ensures that the produced large-scale surfactant blend performs as the reference blend used to design the formulation.
|File Size||982 KB||Number of Pages||12|
Al-Saadi, F. M., Al-Amri, B. A., Al Nofli, S. M. et al. 2012. Polymer Flooding in a Large Field in South Oman—Initial Results and Future Plans. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 16–18 April. SPE-154665-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154665-MS.
Al-Shuaili, K., Svec, Y., Guntupalli, S. et al. 2018. Field Piloting of Alkaline Surfactant Polymer in Southern Sultanate of Oman. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 26–28 March. SPE-190392-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/190392-MS.
Barnes, J. R., Dirkzwager, H., Smit, J. et al. 2010. Application of Internal Olefin Sulfonates and Other Surfactants to EOR—Part 1: Structure-Performance Relationships for Selection at Different Reservoir Conditions. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129766-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129766-MS.
Buijse, M. A., Prelicz, R. M., Barnes, J. R. et al. 2010. Application of Internal Olefin Sulfonates and Other Surfactants to EOR—Part 2: The Design and Execution of an ASP Field Test. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129769-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129769-MS.
Cheng, H., Shook, G. M., Malik, T. et al. 2012. Interwell Tracer Tests To Optimize Operating Conditions for a Surfactant Field Trial: Design, Evaluation, and Implications. SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (2): 229–242. SPE-144899-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/144899-PA.
Cubillos, H., Stofferis, M., Vanegas, G. et al. 2013. Strategy and Planning EOR for Caracara Sur Field, Colombia. Presented at the EAGE Annual Conference & Exhibition Incorporating SPE Europec, London, 10–13 June. SPE-164930-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/164930-MS.
Cubillos, H., Yuste, E., Bozorgzadeh, M. et al. 2015. The Value of Inter-Well and Single Well Tracer Technology for De-Risking and Optimizing a CEOR Process—Caracara Field Case. Presented at EUROPEC 2015, Madrid, Spain, 1–4 June. SPE-174397-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174397-MS.
de Groot, W. H. 1991. Sulphonation Technology in the Detergent Industry. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Falls, A. H., Thigpen, D. R., Nelson, R. C. et al. 1994. Field Test of Cosurfactant-Enhanced Alkaline Flooding. SPE Res Eng 9 (3): 217–223. SPE-24117-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/24117-PA.
Finol, J. J., Al-Harthy, S. A., Jaspers, H. F. et al. 2012. Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer Pilot Test in Southern Oman. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 16–18 April. SPE-155403-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/155403-MS.
French, M. S., Keys, G. W., Stegemeier, G. L. et al. 1973. Field Test of an Aqueous Surfactant System for Oil Recovery, Benton Field, Illinois. J Pet Technol 25 (2): 195–204. SPE-3799-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3799-PA.
Gogarty, W. B. and Tosch, W. C. 1968. Miscible-Type Waterflooding: Oil Recovery With Micellar Solutions. J Pet Technol 20 (12): 1407–1414. SPE-1847-1-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/1847-1-PA.
Healy, R. N. and Reed, R. L. 1974. Physicochemical Aspects of Microemulsion Flooding. SPE J. 14 (5): 491–501. SPE-4583-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4583-PA.
Healy, R. N., Reed, R. L., and Stenmark, D. G. 1976. Multiphase Microemulsion Systems. SPE J. 16 (3): 147–160. SPE-5565-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/5565-PA.
Hill, H. J., Reisberg, J., and Stegemeier, G. L. 1973. Aqueous Surfactant Systems for Oil Recovery. J Pet Technol 25 (2): 186–194. SPE-3798-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3798-PA.
Hodges, J. L. Jr. and Lehmann, E. L. 2005. Basic Concepts of Probability and Statistics, second edition. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Huh, C. 1979. Interfacial Tensions and Solubilizing Ability of a Microemulsion Phase That Coexists With Oil and Brine. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 71 (2): 408–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(79)90249-2.
Karpan, V. M., Volokitin, Y. I., Shuster, M. Y. et al. 2014. West Salym ASP Pilot: Project Front-End Engineering. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169157-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169157-MS.
Maerker, J. M. and Gale, W. W. 1992. Surfactant Flood Process Design for Loudon. SPE Res Eng 7 (1): 36–44. SPE-20218-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/20218-PA.
Nelson, R. C., Lawson, J. B., Thigpen, D. R. et al. 1984. Cosurfactant-Enhanced Alkaline Flooding. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 15–18 April. SPE-12672-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/12672-MS.
Pandey, A. 2010. Refinement of Chemical Selection for the Planned ASP Pilot in Mangala Field—Additional Phase Behaviour and Coreflood Studies. Presented at the SPE Oil and Gas India Conference and Exhibition, Mumbai, 20–22 January. SPE-129046-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129046-MS.
Pandey, A., Beliveau, D., Corbishley, D. W. et al. 2008. Design of an ASP Pilot for the Mangala Field: Laboratory Evaluations and Simulation Studies. Presented at the SPE Indian Oil and Gas Technical Conference and Exhibition, Mumbai, 4–6 March. SPE-113131-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/113131-MS.
Prasad, D., Pandey, A., Suresh Kumar, M. et al. 2014. Pilot to Full-Field Polymer Application in One of the Largest Onshore Field in India. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169146-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169146-MS.
Pursley, S. A., Healy, R. N., and Sandvik, E. I. 1973. A Field Test of Surfactant Flooding, Loudon, Illinois. J Pet Technol 25 (7): 793–802. SPE-3805-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3805-PA.
Sharma, A., Azizi-Yarand, A., Clayton, B. et al. 2013. The Design and Execution of an Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Pilot Test. SPE Res Eval & Eng 16 (4): 423–431. SPE-154318-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/154318-PA.
Southwick, J. G. 1985. Solubility of Silica in Alkaline Solutions: Implications for Alkaline Flooding. SPE J. 25 (6): 857–864. SPE-12771-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/12771-PA.
Southwick, J. G., van den Pol, E., van Rijn, C. H. T. et al. 2015. Ammonia as Alkali for Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Floods. SPE J. 21 (1): 10–21. SPE-169057-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/169057-PA.
Stoll, W. M., Al Shureqi, H, Finol, J. et al. 2011. Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Flood: From the Laboratory to the Field. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (6): 702–712. SPE-129164-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/129164-PA.
Van Os, N. M., Ginkel, R. V., Van Zon, A. et al. 1996. Olefin Sulfonates: Anionic Surfactants Organic Chemistry, Surfactant Science Series, Vol. 56. New York City: Marcel Dekker.
Volokitin, Y., Shuster, M., Karpan, V. M. et al. 2018. Results of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding Pilot at West Salym Field. Presented at SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 26–28 March. SPE-190382-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/190382-MS.
Zhao, P., Howes, A., Dwarakanath, V. et al. 2010. Evaluation and Manufacturing Quality Control of Chemicals for Surfactant Flooding. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129892-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129892-MS.