Understanding Variable Well Performance in a Chalk Reservoir
- Shah Kabir (Hess Corporation) | Ramin Haftbaradaran (Hess Norge) | Reza Asghari (Hess Norge) | Johanna Sastre (Hess Norge)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- January 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 83 - 94
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Rate-transient analysis helped understand cyclic production and gas-lift performance behaviors , Idle periods need collapsing for valid DCA, Decline-curve analysis in chalk reservoir, Capacitance-resistance modeling augments performance charateristics, Cum Prod curve analysis retains solution objectivity
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 337 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Analyzing well performance is a complex process that increase in difficulty when multiple reservoir-drive mechanisms are in play in the same reservoir. This paper explores an overpressured, compacting chalk reservoir with high porosity and high oil saturation at initial conditions. The diverse drive mechanisms, experienced through the long production history of Valhall Field in Norway, are caused by different degrees of reservoir compaction across the field and the recent waterflood at the crest and northern areas of the field. The purpose of this study is to illuminate the various drive mechanisms experienced in this field. The underlying objective is to understand widely varying Arps b-factors in decline-curve analysis (DCA) that support production forecasting and project evaluation. The performances of inactive wells with long production histories were used as analogs to analyze active wells. Other analytical tools also were used to augment overall understanding of a type well’s performance, including rate-transient analysis (RTA) and capacitance/resistance modeling (CRM). This study demonstrates that the proposed work flow for reservoir-performance forecasting can be adopted in highly complex reservoirs with different rock-mechanical properties, drive mechanisms, production scheduling, and field-development strategies. Specifically, the work flow entails establishing energy support for individual wells by use of Arps b-factor with DCA; collapsing shut-in periods, if any, and using the cumulative production curve for DCA to retain solution objectivity; performing RTA to gauge pressure/rate coherence and system’s linearity; and using CRM to establish injector/producer connectivity.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Al-Shamma, B. and Teigland, R. 2006. History Matching of the Valhall Field Using a Global Optimization Method and Uncertainty Assessment. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24–27 September. SPE-100946-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/100946-MS.
Arps, J. J. 1956. Estimation of Primary Oil Reserves. In Trans., American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Vol. 2007, 182–191. New York City: AIME Petroleum Branch.
Barkved, O., Heavey, P., Kjelstadli, R. et al. 2003. Valhall Field—Still on Plateau After 20 Years of Production. Presented at the Offshore Europe Conference, Aberdeen, 2–5 September. SPE-83957-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/83957-MS.
Can, B. and Kabir, C. S. 2012. Probabilistic Production Forecasting for Unconventional Reservoirs With Stretched Exponential Production Decline Model. SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (1): 41–50. SPE-143666-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143666-PA.
Cook, C. C., Andersen, M. A., Halle, G. et al. 2001. An Approach to Simulating the Effects of Water-Induced Compaction in a North Sea Reservoir. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (2): 121–127. SPE-71301-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/71301-PA.
de Ridder, S. and Biondi, B. 2013. Repeatability Analysis of Ambient-Seismic-Noise Tomography on Four Valhall Datasets, 2004–2010. Presented at the SEG Annual Meeting, Houston, Texas, USA, 22–27 September. SGE-2013-0427.
Dean, G. A., Hardy, R., and Eltvik, P. 1994. Monitoring Compaction and Compressibility Changes in Offshore Chalk Reservoirs. SPE Form Eval 9 (81): 73–76. SPE-23142-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23142-PA.
Griffin, T. A., Best, K. D., Thingvoil, T. T. et al. 2007. Monitoring Waterflood Performance in a Depleted Fractured Chalk Reservoir. Presented at the Offshore Europe, Aberdeen, 4–7 September. SPE-108687-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/108687-MS.
Han, G., Vaughn, B., Davids, A. et al. 2013. Development and Calibrations of a Coupled Reservoir Geomechanic Model for Valhall Field. Presented at the 47th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, USA, 23–26 June. ARMA 13-163.
Hegdal, T., Dixon, R. T., and Martinsen, R. 2000. Production Forecasting of an Unstable Compacting Chalk Field Using Uncertainty Analysis. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3 (3): 189–196. SPE-64296-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/64296-PA.
Ilk, D., Rushing, J. A., Perego, A. D. et al. 2008. Exponential vs. Hyperbolic Decline in Tight Gas Sands—Understanding the Origin and Implications for Reserve Estimates Using Arps’ Decline Curves. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, USA, 21–24 September. SPE-116731-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116731-MS.
Ilk, D., Anderson, D. M., Stotts, G. W. J. et al. 2010. Production Data Analysis—Challenges, Pitfalls, Diagnostics. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (3): 538–552. SPE-102048-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102048-PA.
Izgec, O. and Kabir, C. S. 2010. Understanding Reservoir Connectivity in Waterfloods Before Breakthrough. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 75 (1–2): 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2010.10.004.
Izgec, O. 2012. Understanding Waterflood Performance With Modern Analytical Techniques. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 81: 100–111. http://dx.doiorg/10.1016/j.petrol.2011.11.007.
Kabir, C. S. and Young, N. J. 2004. Handling Production-Data Uncertainty in History Matching: The Meren Reservoir Case Study. SPE Res Eval & Eng 7 (2): 123–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87823-PA.
Kabir, C. S. and Izgec, B. 2009. Diagnosis of Reservoir Compartmentalization From Measured Pressure/Rate Data During Primary Depletion. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 69: 271–282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2009.09.007.
Kaviani, D., Jensen, J. L., and Lake, L. W. 2012. Estimation of Interwell Connectivity in the Case of Unmeasured Fluctuating Bottomhole Pressures. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 90–91: 79–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2012.04.008.
Kjelstadli, R. M., Lane, H. S., Johnson, D. T. et al. 2005. Quantitative History Match of 4D Seismic Response and Production Data in the Valhall Field. Presented at the Offshore Europe, Aberdeen, 6–9 September. SPE-96317-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96317-MS.
Kristiansen, T. G. and Flateboe, R. 2010. Sixty Days Ahead of Schedule: Reducing Drilling Risk at Valhall Using Computational Geomechanics. SPE Drill & Compl 25 (4): 544–554. SPE-119509-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119509-PA.
Kumar, A. 1977. Strength of Water Drive or Fluid Injection From Transient Well Test Data. J Pet Technol 29 (11): 1497–1508. SPE-5054-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5054-PA.
Lane, H. S., Kjelstadli, R. M., Barkved, G. J. et al. 2006. Constraining Reservoir Uncertainty With Frequent 4D-Seismic Data at Valhall Field. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, USA, 1–4 May. OTC-18222-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/18222-MS.
Laochamroonvorapongse, R., Kabir, C. S., and Lake, L. W. 2014. Performance Assessment of Miscible and Immiscible Water-Alternating Gas Floods With Simple Tools. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 122: 18–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.08.012.
Liu, F., Morton, S. A., Fairhead, S. et al. 2012. 3D Time-Domain Full Waveform Inversion of a Valhall OBC Dataset. Presented at the SEG Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, USA, 4–9 November. SEG-2012-1105.
Medeiros, F., Kurtoglu, B., Ozkan, E. et al. 2010. Analysis of Production Data From Hydraulically Fractured Horizontal Wells in Shale Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (3): 559–568. SPE-110848-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110848-PA.
Nazir, A., Singh, P. K., Peng, C. P. et al. 1994. Injection-Above-Parting-Pressure Waterflood Pilot, Valhall Field, Norway. SPE Res Eng 9 (1): 22–28. SPE-22893-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22893-PA.
Ogunyomi, B. A., Patzek, T. W., Lake, L. W. et al. 2015. History Matching and Rate Forecasting in Unconventional Oil Reservoirs Using an Approximate Analytical Solution to the Double-Porosity Model. SPE Res Eval & Eng 19 (1). SPE-171031-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/171031-PA. (in press; posted November 2015).
Parekh, B. and Kabir, C. S. 2013. A Case Study of Improved Understanding of Reservoir Connectivity in an Evolving Waterflood With Surveillance Data. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 102: 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2013.01.004.
Pettersen, ?. and Kristiansen, T. G. 2009. Improved Compaction Modeling in Reservoir Simulation and Coupled Rock Mechanics/Flow Simulation, With Examples From the Valhall Field. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (2): 329–340. SPE-113003-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113003-PA.
Pong, C. P., Singh, P. K., Halvorsen, H. et al. 1992. Fractured Reservoir Characterization Through Injection, Falloff, and Flowback Tests. SPE Form Eval 7 (3): 241–246. SPE-20567-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20567-PA.
Sayarpour, M., Kabir, C. S., and Lake, L. W. 2009. Field Applications of Capacitance-Resistance Models in Waterfloods. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (6): 853–864. SPE-114983-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114983-PA.
Soroush, M., Kaviani, D., and Jensen, J. L. 2014. Interwell Connectivity Evaluation in Cases of Changing Skin and Frequent Production Interruptions. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 122: 616–630. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.09.001.
Tjetland, G., Kristiuansen, T. G., and Buer, K. 2007. Reservoir Management Aspects of Early Waterflood Response After 25 Years of Depletion in the Valhall Field. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Dubai, 4–6 December. IPTC-11276-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/11276-MS.
Valko, P. P. 2009. Assigning Value to Stimulation in the Barnett Shale: A Simultaneous Analysis of 7,000 Plus Production Histories and Well Completion Records. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 19–21 January. SPE-119369-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119369-MS.
Valko, P. P. and Lee, W. J. 2010. A Better Way to Forecast Production From Unconventional Gas Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-134231-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/134231-MS.
Yang, D., Fehler, M., Malcolm, A. et al. 2013. Double-Difference Waveform Inversion of 4D Ocean Bottom Cable Data: Application to Valhall, North Sea. Presented at the SEG Annual Meeting, Houston, USA, 22–27 September. SEG-2013-1318.
York, S. D., Pong, C. P., and Joslin, T. H. 1992. Reservoir Management of Valhall Field, Norway. J Pet Technol 44 (8): 918–923. SPE-20992-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20992-PA.
Yortsos, Y. C., Choi, Y., Yang, Z., and Shah, P. C. 1999. Analysis and Interpretation of Water/Oil Ratio in Waterfloods. SPE J 4 (4): 413–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59477-PA.