Advances in Understanding Wettability of Tight Oil Formations: A Montney Case Study
- Ali Habibi (University of Alberta) | Hassan Dehghanpour (The University of Texas at Austin) | Mojtaba Binazadeh (University of Alberta) | Donald Bryan (Cenovus Energy) | Gordon Uswak (Cenovus Energy)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- October 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 583 - 603
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Spontaneous Imbibition, Soaking Tight Oil Wells, Tight Oil Production, Wettability Charactrization, Improved Oil Recovery
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 1,067 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
This paper presents comprehensive rock/fluid experiments, by use of reservoir rock and fluids, to investigate wetting affinity of the Montney (MT) tight oil play in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Wettability characterization is essential for selecting optimum fracturing and treatment fluids by completion engineers and for selecting appropriate relative permeability and capillary pressure curves by reservoir engineers. Application of the conventional techniques for wettability evaluation of tight rocks is challenging primarily because of their extremely low permeability and complex pore structure. The objective of this paper is to develop an alternative laboratory protocol for evaluating the wettability of tight oil rocks reliably. First, we conducted systematic spontaneous-imbibition tests on fresh core samples from two different wells drilled in the MT formation. We measured the air/brine, air/oil, and brine/oil contact angles for all samples. We used the end pieces of the samples to conduct scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of the elemental mapping, or energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Finally, we investigated the spontaneous imbibition of brine (or oil) into the samples partly saturated with oil (or brine). Both oil and brine spontaneously imbibe into the fresh samples, composed of quartz, carbonates (dolomite/calcite), clay minerals, feldspars, and organic matter. The results indicate that the effective pore network exhibits a mixed-wet behavior. Moreover, brine spontaneously imbibes into and forces the oil out of the oil-saturated samples, whereas oil cannot imbibe into the brine-saturated samples. This indicates that in the presence of both oil and brine, the rock affinity to brine is higher than that to oil.
|File Size||5 MB||Number of Pages||21|
Alamdari, B. B., Kiani, M. and Kazemi, H. 2012. Experimental and Numerical Simulation of Surfactant-Assisted Oil Recovery in Tight Fractured Carbonate Reservoir Cores. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 14–18 April. SPE-153902-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/153902-MS.
Amott, E. 1959. Observations Relating to the Wettability of Porous Media. SPE-1167-G.
Anderson, W. G. 1986a. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 1: Rock/Oil/Brine Interactions and the Effects of Core Handling on Wettability. J Pet Technol 38 (11): 1125–1144. SPE-13932-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13932-PA.
Anderson, W. G. 1986b. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 2: Wettability Measurement. J Pet Technol 38 (12): 1246–1262. SPE-13933-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13933-PA.
Anderson, W. G. 1986c. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 3: The Effects of Wettability on the Electrical Properties of Porous Media. J Pet Technol 39 (13): 1371–1378. SPE-13934-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13934-PA.
Anderson, W. G. 1987a. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 4: Effects of Wettability on Capillary Pressure. J Pet Technol 39 (10): 1283–1300. SPE-15271-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15271-PA.
Anderson, W. G. 1987b. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 5: The Effects of Wettability on Relative Permeability. J Pet Technol 39 (11): 1453–1468. SPE-16323-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16323-PA.
Anderson, W. G. 1987c. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 6: The Effects of Wettability on Waterflooding. J Pet Technol 39 (12): 1605–1622. SPE-16471-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16471-PA.
Bennion, D. B. and Thomas, F. B. 2005. Formation Damage Issues Impacting the Productivity of Low Permeability, Low Initial Water Saturation Gas Producing Formations. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 127 (3): 240–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.1937420.
Brown, R. J. S. and Fatt, I. 1956. Measurements of Fractional Wettability of Oil Fields’ Rocks by the Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Method. Presented at the Fall Meeting of the Petroleum Branch of AIME, Los Angeles, 14–17 October. SPE-743-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/743-G.
Chaturvedi, T., Schembre, J. M. and Kovscek, A. R. 2009. Spontaneous Imbibition and Wettability Characteristics of Powder River Basin Coal. Int. J. Coal Geol. 77 (1–2): 34–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2008.08.002.
Cheng, Y. 2012. Impact of Water Dynamics in Fractures on the Performance of Hydraulically Fractured Wells in Gas-Shale Reservoirs. J Can Pet Technol 51 (2): 143–151. SPE-127863-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/127863-PA.
Davies, G. R., Moslow, T. F. and Sherwin, M. D. 1997. The Lower Triassic Montney Formation, West-Central Alberta. Bull. Can. Petrol. Geol. 45 (4): 474–505.
Dehghanpour, H., Lan, Q., Saeed, Y. et al. 2013. Spontaneous Imbibition of Brine and Oil in Gas Shales: Effect of Water Adsorption and Resulting Microfractures. Energ. Fuel. 27 (6): 3039–3049. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef4002814.
Dehghanpour, H., Xu, M. and Habibi, A. 2015. Wettability of Gas Shale Reservoirs. In Fundamentals of Gas Shale Reservoirs, ed. R. Rezaee, Chap. 16, 341–359. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Donaldson, E. C. and Alam, W. 2008. Wettability. In Wettability, ed. E.C. Donaldson and W. Alam, Chap. 1, 1–55. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.
Donaldson, E. C., Thomas, R. D. and Lorenz, P. B. 1969. Wettability Determination and Its Effect on Recovery Efficiency. SPE J. 9 (1): 13–20. SPE-2338-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2338-PA.
Ghanbari, E. and Dehghanpour, H. 2015. Impact of Rock Fabric on Water Imbibition and Salt Diffusion in Gas Shales. Int. J. Coal Geol. 138 (15 January): 55–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2014.11.003.
Ghanbari, E. and Dehghanpour, H. 2016. The Fate of Fracturing Water: A Field and Simulation Study. Fuel 163 (1 January): 282–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.09.040.
Ghanizadeh, A., Clarkson, C. R., Aquino, S. et al. 2015. Impact of Solvent-Extraction on Fluid Storage and Transport Properties of Montney Formation. Presented at the SPE/CSUR Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 20–22 October. SPE-175954-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/175954-MS.
Handy, L. L. 1960. Determination of Effective Capillary Pressure for Porous Media from Imbibition Data. SPE-1361-G.
Jones, S. C. and Roszelle, W. O. 1978. Graphical Techniques for Determining Relative Permeability from Displacement Experiments. J Pet Technol 30 (5): 807–817. SPE-6045-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6045-PA.
Kathel, P. and Mohanty, K. K. 2013. Wettability Alteration in a Tight Oil Reservoir. Energ. Fuel. 27 (11): 6460–6468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef4012752.
Lan, Q., Xu, M., Dehghanpour, H. et al. 2014a. Advances in Understanding Wettability of Tight and Shale Gas Formations. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 27–29 October. SPE-170969-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170969-MS.
Lan, Q., Ghanbari, E., Dehghanpour, H. et al. 2014b. Water Loss Versus Soaking Time: Spontaneous Imbibition in Tight Rocks. Energ. Technol. 2 (12) : 1033–1039. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ente.201402039.
Lan, Q., Dehghanpour, H., Wood, J. et al. 2014c. Wettability of the Montney Tight Gas Formation. Presented at the SPE/CSUR Unconventional Resources Conference – Canada, Calgary, 30 September–2 October. SPE-171620-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/171620-MS.
Lan, Q., Xu, M., Binazadeh, M. et al. 2015. A Comparative Investigation of Shale Wettability: The Significance of Pore Connectivity. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 27 (2): 1174–1188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2015.09.064.
Ma, S., Morrow, N. R. and Zhang, X. 1997. Generalized Scaling of Spontaneous Imbibition Data for Strongly Water-Wet Systems. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 18 (3–4): 165–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(97)00020-X.
Mattax, C. C. and Kyte, J. R. 1962. Imbibition Oil Recovery from Fractured, Water-Drive Reservoir. SPE J. 2 (2): 177–184. SPE-187-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/187-PA.
Makhanov, K., Dehghanpour, H. and Kuru, E. 2012. An Experimental Study of Spontaneous Imbibition in Horn River Shales. Presented at SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 30 October–1 November. SPE-162650-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/162650-MS.
Makhanov, K., Habibi, A., Dehghanpour, H. et al. 2014. Liquid Uptake of Gas Shales: A Workflow to Estimate Water Loss During Shut-In Periods After Fracturing Operations. J. Unconven. Oil Gas Resour. 7 (September): 22–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juogr.2014.04.001.
Manrique, E., Thomas, C., Ravikiran, R. et al. 2010. EOR: Current Status and Opportunities. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-130113-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130113-MS.
Montgomery, C. 2013. Fracturing Fluids. Presented at the ISRM International Conference for Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing, Brisbane, Australia, 20–22 May. ISRM-ICHF-2013-035.
Morrow, N. R. 1990. Wettability and Its Effect on Oil Recovery. J Pet Technol 42 (12): 1476–1484. SPE-21621-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21621-PA.
Peters, E. J. 2012. Advanced Petrophysics: Dispersion, Interfacial Phenomena/Wettability, Capillarity/Capillary Pressure, Relative Permeability, Vol. 2. Palo Alto, California: Live Oak Book Company.
Reynolds, M. M., Bachman, R. C. and Peters, W. E. 2014. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Fracture Fluid Systems Used in Multi-Stage Fractured Horizontal Wells: MT Formation, Unconventional Gas. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 4–6 February. SPE-168632-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168632-MS.
Rezaveisi, M., Ayatollahi, S. and Rostami, B. 2012. Experimental Investigation of Matrix Wettability Effects on Water Imbibition in Fractured Artificial Porous Media. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 86–87 (May): 165–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2012.03.004.
Roychaudhuri, B., Tsotsis, T. T. and Jessen, K. 2013. An Experimental Investigation of Spontaneous Imbibition in Gas Shales. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 111 (November): 87–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2013.10.002.
Roychaudhuri, B., Xu, J., Tsotsis, T. T. et al. 2014. Forced and Spontaneous Imbibition Experiments for Quantifying Surfactant Efficiency in Tight Shales. Presented at the SPEWestern North America and Rocky Mountain Joint Meeting, Denver, 17–18 April. SPE-169500-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169500-MS.
Schechter, D. S., Zhou, D. and Orr, F. M. Jr. 1994. Low IFT Drainage and Imbibition. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 11 (4): 283–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(94)90047-7.
Schembre, J. M., Akin, S., Castanier, L. M. et al. 1998. Spontaneous Water Imbibition into Diatomite. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 10–13 May. SPE-46211-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/46211-MS.
Schmid, K. S. and Geiger, S. 2012. Universal Scaling of Spontaneous Imbibition for Water-Wet Systems. Water Resour. Res. 48 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011WR011566.
Schmid, K. S. and Geiger, S. 2013. Universal Scaling of Spontaneous Imbibition for Arbitrary Petrophysical Properties: Water-Wet and Mixed-Wet States and Handy’s Conjecture. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 101 (January): 44–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2012.11.015.
Shaoul, J. R., van Zelm, L. F. and de Pater, C. J. 2011. Damage Mechanisms in Unconventional-Gas-Well Stimulation–A New Look at an Old Problem. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (4): 388–400. SPE-142479-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142479-PA.
Standnes, D. C., Nogaret, L. A. D., Chen, H.-L. et al. 2002. An Evaluation of Spontaneous Imbibition of Water into Oil-Wet Carbonate Reservoir Cores Using a Nonionic and a Cationic Surfactant. Energ. Fuel. 16 (6): 1557–1564. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef0201127.
Wang, D., Butler, R., Zhang, J. et al. 2012. Wettability Survey in Bakken Shale with Surfactant-Formulation Imbibition. SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (6): 695–705. SPE-153853-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/153853-PA.
Wang, M. and Leung, J. Y. 2015. Numerical Investigation of Fluid-Loss Mechanisms during Hydraulic Fracturing Flow-Back Operations in Tight Reservoirs. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 133 (September): 85–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.05.013.
Xu, M. and Dehghanpour, H. 2014. Advances in Understanding Wettability of Gas Shales. Energ. Fuel. 28 (7): 4362–4375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef500428y.
Xu, Y., Adefidipe, O. A. and Dehghanpour, H. 2015. Estimating Fracture Volume Using Flowback Data from the Horn River Basin: A Material Balance Approach. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 25 (July): 253–270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2015.04.036.