Geomechanics of Lost-Circulation Events and Wellbore-Strengthening Operations
- Amin Mehrabian (Halliburton) | Dale E. Jamison (Halliburton) | Sorin Gabriel Teodorescu (Halliburton)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,305 - 1,316
- 2015.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Mud Weight Window, Wellbore Stress , Lost Circulation Material, Fracture Mechanics
- 10 in the last 30 days
- 1,364 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Lost circulation, a major complication of drilling operations, is commonly treated by adding materials of various types, shapes, and particle-size distributions to the drilling mud. Generally known as wellbore strengthening, this technique often helps the operator to drill with higher mud gradients compared with that suggested by the conventional fracture-gradient or borehole-fracture-limit analysis. The underlying mechanisms through which a wellbore is strengthened, however, are not yet fully understood.
This study explores these wellbore-strengthening mechanisms through an analytical solution to the related solid-mechanics model of the wellbore and its adjacent fractures. The provided solution is generic in that it takes into account the mechanical interaction of multiple fractures between one another and the wellbore under an arbitrary state of in-situ stress anisotropy. An additional generality in this solution arises from its unification and quantification of some solid-mechanics aspects of the previous hypotheses that have been published on the subject—i.e., stress cage, as well as the tip isolation and its effect on the fracture-propagation resistance.
In relation to the stress-cage theory, the study investigates the wellbore-hoop-stress enhancement upon fracturing. The findings indicate that the induced hoop stress is significant at some regions near the wellbore, especially in the general vicinity of the fracture(s). However, given the strong dependency of wellbore stress on the mechanical and geometrical parameters of the problem, generalizing these results to the entire region around the wellbore may not always be trivial. The study also examines tip isolation, a common feature of fracture-closure and propagation-resistance hypotheses, through the analysis of partially reduced fracture pressures and a breakdown criterion, defined by the critical stress-intensity factor of the formation rock.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Abousleiman, Y.N., Nguyen, V., Pan, J., et al. 2005. Time Effects in Wellbore Fracture Gradient Analysis. Oral presentation given at the SPE Applied Technology Workshop on Borehole Strengthening and Stability, The Woodlands, Texas, 18–19 April.
Abousleiman, Y.N., Nguyen, V., Hemphill, T., et al. 2007. Time-Dependent Wellbore Strengthening in Chemically Active or Less Active Rock Formations. Oral presentation of paper AADE-07-NTCE-67 presented at the American Association of Drilling Engineers National Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 10–12 April.
Alberty, M.W. and McLean, M.R. 2004. A Physical Model for Stress Cages. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 26–29 September. SPE-90493-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90493-MS.
Ardakani, S.M. and Ulm, F.J. 2014. Chemoelastic Fracture Mechanics Model for Cement Sheath Integrity. J. Eng. Mech. 140 (4): 04013009-1–04013009-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000690.
Arlanoglu, C., Feng, Y., Podnos, E. et al. 2014. Finite Element Studies of Wellbore Strengthening. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Fort Worth, Texas, 4–6 March. SPE-168001-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168001-MS.
Aston, M.S., Alberty, M.W., McLean, M.R., et al. 2004. Drilling Fluids for Wellbore Strengthening. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Dallas, Texas, 2–4 March. SPE-87130-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87130-MS.
Boresi, A.P., Chong, K. and Lee, J. 2011. Elasticity in Engineering Mechanics, third edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Brudy, M. and Zoback, M.D. 1993. Compressive and Tensile Failure of Boreholes Arbitrarily Inclined to Principal Stress Axes: Application to KTB Boreholes, Germany. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 30 (7): 1035–1046. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(93)90068-O.
Carter, J.P. and Booker, J.R. 1982. Elastic Consolidation Around a Deep Circular Tunnel. Int. J. Solids Struct. 18 (12): 1059–1074. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7683(82)90093-2.
Carbonell, R.J.K. and Detournay, E.J.K. 1995. Modeling Fracture Initiation and Propagation from a Pressurized Hole: A Dislocation-Based Approach. Presented at the 35th US Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Reno, Nevada, 5–7 June. ARMA-95-0465.
Cui, L., Cheng A.H.D., Abousleiman, Y. 1997. Poroelastic Solution for an Inclined Borehole. J. Appl. Mech. 64 (1): 32–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2787291.
Dudley, J., Fehler, D.F., and Zeilinger, S. 2001. Minimizing Lost Circulation Problems in Synthetic Muds. Final Report, GPRI 2000 Project DC3, Shell International E&P, The Hague, The Netherlands (December 2001).
Dupriest, F.E. 2005. Fracture Closure Stress (FCS) and Lost Returns Practices. Presented at SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 23–25 February. SPE-92192-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/92192-MS.
Fisher, M.K., Wright, C.A., Davidson, B.M., et al. 2002. Integrating Fracture Mapping Technologies to Optimize Stimulations in the Barnett Shale. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September–2 October. SPE-77441-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77441-MS.
Fjær, E., Holt, R.M., Horsrud, P., et al. 2008. Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics, second edition. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.
Gao, Q., Feng, Y.Z. and Jin, Z.H. 2011. Fracture Aperture for Wellbore Strengthening Application. Presented at the 42th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, California, 26–29 June. ARMA-11-378.
Garagash, D.I., Detournay, E. and Adachi, J.I. 2011. Multiscale Tip Asymptotics in Hydraulic Fracture with Leak-off. J. Fluid Mech. 669 (February): 260–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002211201000501X.
Garagash, D.I. and Sarvaramini, E. 2012. Equilibrium of a Pressurized Plastic Fluid in a Wellbore Crack. Int. J. Solids Struct. 49 (1): 197–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2011.09.022.
Griffith, A.A. 1921. The Phenomena of Rupture and Flow in Solids. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A 221: 163–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1921.0006.
Guo, Q., Cook, J., Way, P. et al. 2014. A Comprehensive Experimental Study on Wellbore Strengthening. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Fort Worth, Texas, 4–6 March. SPE-167957-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/167957-MS.
Hubbert, M.K. and Willis, D.G. 1957. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing. Trans. AIME 210: 153–168.
Jeager, J.C., Cook, N.G.W., and Zimmerman, R. 2007. Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics, fourth edition. Singapore: Wiley-Blackwell.
Kageson-Loe, N.M., Sanders, M.W., Growcock, F., et al. 2009. Particulate-Based Loss-Prevention Material–The Secrets of Fracture Sealing Revealed! SPE Drill & Compl 24 (4): 581–589. SPE-112595-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/112595-PA.
Kovalyshen, Y. and Detournay, E. 2013. Fluid-Driven Fracture in a Poroelastic Rock. Oral presentation given at the International Society for Rock Mechanics International Conference for Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing, Brisbane, Australia, 20–22 May.
Lecampion, B., Abbas, S. and Prioul, R. 2013. Competition Between Transverse And Axial Hydraulic Fractures In Horizontal Wells. Presented at SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 4–6 February. SPE-163848-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163848-MS.
Lehman, L.V. and Brumley, J.L. 1997. Etiology of Multiple Fractures. Presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 9–11 March. SPE-37406-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37406-MS.
MATLAB R2013b. 2013. Natick, Massachusetts: The MathWorks, Inc.
Mehrabian, A., Abousleiman Y.N. 2013. Generalized Poroelastic Wellbore Problem. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Met. 37 (16): 2727–2754. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nag.2160.
Miller, M.L., Jamison D.E. and Murphy, R.J. 2013. Laboratory Apparatus Improves Simulation of Lost Circulation Conditions. Oral presentation of paper AADE-13-FTCE-09 given at the AADE National Technical Conference and Exhibition, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 26–27 February.
Morita, N., Black, A.D. and Fuh, G.F. 1996a. Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids—I. Empirical Results. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 33 (1): 39–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(95)00028-3.
Morita, N., Black, A.D. and Fuh, G.F. 1996b. Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids—II. Semi-Analytical Solution to Predict Borehole Breakdown Pressure. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 33 (1): 53–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(95)00029-1.
Morita, N. and Fuh, G.F. 2012. Parametric Analysis of Wellbore-Strengthening Methods from Basic Rock Mechanics. SPE Drill & Compl 27 (2): 315–327. SPE-145765-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145765-PA.
Muskhelishvili, N.I., ed. 2010. Some Basic Problems of the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, fourth edition. Leyden, The Netherlands: Noordhoff International Publishing.
Narendran, V.M. and Cleary, M.P. 1983. Analysis of Growth and Interaction of Multiple Hydraulic Fractures. Presented at SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, San Francisco, California, 15–18 November. SPE-12272-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12272-MS.
Onyia, E.C. 1994. Experimental Data Analysis of Lost-Circulation Problems During Drilling With Oil-Based Mud. SPE Drill and Compl 9 (01): 25–31. SPE-22581-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22581-PA.
Peska, P. and Zoback, M.D. 1995. Compressive and Tensile Failure of Inclined Wellbores and Determination of In-Situ Stress and Rock Strength. J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. EA 100 (B7): 12791–12811. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/95JB00319.
Salehi, S. and Nygaard, R. 2011. Evaluation of New Drilling Approach for Widening Operational Window: Implications for Wellbore Strengthening. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 27–29 March. SPE-140753-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140753-MS.
Savari, S., Whitfill, D.L., Jamison, D.E. et al. 2014. A Method to Evaluate Lost Circulation Materials-Investigation of Effective Wellbore Strengthening Applications. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Fort Worth, Texas, 4–6 March. SPE-167977-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/167977-MS.
Shahri, M.P., Oar, T., Safari, R. et al. 2014. Advanced Geomechanical Analysis of Wellbore Strengthening for Depleted Reservoir Drilling Applications. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Fort Worth, Texas, 4–6 March. SPE-167976-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/167976-MS.
Tada, H., Paris, P.C. and Irwin, G.R. 2000. The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, third edition. New York City, New York: ASME Press.
van Oort, E., Friedheim, J., Lee, J., et al. 2008. Continuously Strengthening Wellbores Eliminates Lost Circulation. World Oil 229 (11): 8.
van Oort, E., Friedheim, J.E., Pierce, T., et al. 2011. Avoiding Losses in Depleted and Weak Zones by Constantly Strengthening Wellbores. SPE Drill & Compl 26 (4): 519–530. SPE-125093-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125093-PA.
van Oort, E. and Razavi S.R. 2014. Wellbore Strengthening and Casing Smear: The Common Underlying Mechanism. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Fort Worth, Texas, 4–6 March. SPE-168041-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168041-MS.
Wang, H., Soliman, M.Y. and Towler, B.F. 2009a. Investigation of Factors for Strengthening a Wellbore by Propping Fractures. SPE Drill & Compl 24 (3): 441–451. SPE-112629-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/112629-PA.
Wang, H., Soliman, M.Y., Towler, B.F., et al. 2009b. Strengthening a Wellbore with Multiple Fractures: Further Investigation of Factors for Strengthening a Wellbore. Presented at the 43rd US Rock Mechanics Symposium and 4th US–Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, Asheville, North Carolina, 28 June–1 July. ARMA-09-067.
Warren, W.E. 1982. The Quasi-Static Stress Field around a Fractured Wellbore. Int. J. Fracture 18 (2): 113–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00019636.
Weertman, J. 1996. Dislocation Based Fracture Mechanics. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Zhou, J., Chen, M., Jin, Y., et al. 2008. Analysis of Fracture Propagation Behavior and Fracture Geometry using a Tri-Axial Fracturing System in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 45 (7): 1143–1152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.01.001.