Stimulation of High-Temperature Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Production Wells Using a New Chelating Agent (GLDA) and Subsequent Geochemical Modeling Using PHREEQC
- Z. Ouled Ameur (Cenovus Energy) | Viacheslau Y. Kudrashou (Texas A&M University) | Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University) | Jeffrey P. J. Forsyth (Cenovus Energy) | John J. Mahoney (Mahoney Geochemical Consulting) | Barney J. Daigle (AkzoNobel)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 185 - 200
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- scale, acidizing, chelants, SAGD wells, high temperature
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 219 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The acidizing of sour, heavy-oil, weakly consolidated sandstone formations under steam injection is challenging because of fines migration, sand production, inorganic-scale formation, corrosion issues, and damage caused by asphaltene precipitation associated with these sandstone formations. These and other similar problems cause decline in the productivity of the wells, and there is a recurring need to stimulate them to restore productivity. The complexity of sandstone ormations requires a mixture of acids and several additives, especially at temperatures up to 360°F, to accomplish successful stimulation. Three treatments were tested on a horizontal well in the field: hydrochloric acid (HCl); Chelating Agent B, a high-pH chelant; and Chelating Agent A, or glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA). The first two treatments with 15 wt% HCl and high-pH (pH=10) Chelating Agent B produced results below expectations. The third treatment using GLDA was successful, and the well productivity increased significantly. The field treatment with GLDA included pumping the treatment fluid, which was foamed to create proper rheological characteristics and a better-controlled pumping process. The treatment fluids were displaced into the formation by pumping produced water and were allowed to soak for 6 hours. In this paper, we evaluate the field applications of GLDA using geochemical modeling, production data, and analysis of well-flowback fluids after the field treatments.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||16|
Adenuga, O. O., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., and Sayed, M. A. I. 2013. Reactions of Simple Organic Acids and Chelating Agents With Dolomite. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 23–26 March. SPE-164480-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/164480-MS.
Al-Dahlan, M. N., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., and Al-Qahtani, A. A. 2001. Evaluation of Retarded HF Acid Systems. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 13–16 February. SPE-65032-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/65032-MS.
Ali, A. H. A., Frenier, W. W., Xiao, Z. et al. 2002. Chelating Agent-Based Fluids for Optimal Stimulation of High-Temperature Wells. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September–2 October. SPE-77366-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/77366-MS.
Ali, S. A., Ermel, E., Clarke, J. et al. 2005. Stimulation of High-Temperature Sandstone Formations From West Africa With Chelating Agent-Based Fluids. SPE Prod & Oper 23 (1): 32–38. SPE-93805-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/93805-PA.
Almubarak, T., Ng, J. H., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2017. Chelating Agents in Productivity Enhancement: A Review. Presented at the SPE Oklahoma City Oil and Gas Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 27–31 March. SPE-185097-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/185097-MS.
Armirola, F., Machacon, M., Pinto, C. et al. 2011. Combining Matrix Stimulation and Gravel Packing Using a Non-Acid Based Fluid. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 7–10 June. SPE-143788-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/143788-MS.
Barrett, M. L. and Mathias, R. W. 1992. Sediment Alteration and Fines Migration in Enhanced Recovery Operations, Tertiary Heavy Oil Fields, California. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 26–27 February. SPE-23782-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/23782-MS.
Bennion, D. B., Thomas, F. B., and Sheppard, D. A. 1992. Formation Damage Due to Mineral Alteration and Wettability Changes During Hot Water and Steam Injection in Clay-Bearing Sandstone Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 26–27 February. SPE-23783-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/23783-MS.
Braun, W., De Wolf, C. A., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2012. Improved Health, Safety and Environmental Profile of a New Field Proven Stimulation Fluid (Russian). Presented at the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Technical Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, 16–18 October. SPE-157467-RU. https://doi.org/10.2118/157467-RU.
Chakrabarty, T. and Longo, J. M. 1994. Production Problems in the Steam-Stimulated Shaley Oil Sands of the Cold Lake Reservoir: Cause and Possible Solutions. J Can Pet Technol 33 (10): 34–39. PETSOC-94-10-04. https://doi.org/10.2118/94-10-04.
Davies, D. K., Vessell, R. K., Fu, R. Y. et al. 1996. Nature, Origin, Treatment and Control of Well-Bore Scales in an Active Steamflood Wilmington Field, California. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 21–24 April. SPE-35418-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/35418-MS.
DeVine, C. S., Kalfayan, L. J., and Ali, S. A. 2002. Method for Proper HF Treatment Selection. Petroleum Society of Canada. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 11–13 June. PETSOC-2002-288. https://doi.org/10.2118/2002-288.
Erno, B. P., Chriest, J., and Miller, K. A. 1991. Carbonate Scale Formation in Thermally Stimulated Heavy-Oil Wells Near Lloydminster, Saskatchewan. Presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations Symposium, Bakersfield, California, 7–8 February. SPE-21548-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/21548-MS.
Fredd, C. N. and Fogler, H. S. 1997. Chelating Agents as Effective Matrix Stimulation Fluids for Carbonate Formations. Presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 18–21 February. SPE-37212-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/37212-MS.
Fredd, C. N. and Fogler, H. S. 1998. The Influence of Chelating Agents on the Kinetics of Calcite Dissolution. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 204 (1): 187–197. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1998.5535.
Frenier, W. W., Fredd, C. N., and Chang, F. 2001. Hydroxyaminocarboxylic Acids Produce Superior Formulations for Matrix Stimulation of Carbonates at High Temperatures. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–3 October. SPE-71696-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/71696-MS.
Frenier, W. W., Rainey, M., Wilson, D. et al. 2003. A Biodegradable Chelating Agent is Developed for Stimulation of Oil and Gas Formations. Presented at the SPE/EPA/DOE Exploration and Production Environmental Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 10–12 March. SPE-80597-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/80597-MS.
Frenier, W., Brady, M., Al-Harthy, S. et al. 2004. Hot Oil and Gas Wells Can Be Stimulated Without Acids. SPE Prod & Fac 19 (4): 189–199. SPE- 86522-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/86522-PA.
Gallup, D. L. and Hinrichsen, C. J. 2008. Control of Silicate Scales in Steam Flood Operation. Presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference, Aberdeen, UK, 28–29 May. SPE-114042-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/114042-MS.
Gdanski, R. D. 1985. AlCl3 Retards HF Acid for More Effective Stimulation. Oil Gas J. October: 111–115.
Gill, J. S. 1998. Silica Scale Control. Presented at CORROSION 98, San Diego, California, 22–27 March. NACE-98226.
Guan, H. 2013. Selection of Scale Inhibitor for Geothermal Applications. Presented at CORROSION 2013, Orlando, Florida, 17–21 March. NACE- 2013-2631.
Hajdo, L. E. 1994. Formation Damage of an Unconsolidated Reservoir During Steamflooding. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 7–10 February. SPE-27385-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/27385-MS.
Huang, W.-L. and Longo, J. M. 1994. Experimental Studies of Silicate-Carbonate Reactions—II. Applications to Steam Flooding of Oil Sands. Appl. Geochem. 9 (5): 523–532. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-2927(94)90014-0.
Kia, S. F., Fogler, H. S., and Reed, M. G. 1987. Effect of Salt Composition on Clay Release in Berea Sandstones. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, San Antonio, Texas, 4–6 February. SPE-16254-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/16254-MS.
Kumar, M. and Hong, K. C. 1992. Effects of Wellbore Steam Segregation on Steamflood Performance. SPE Res Eng 7 (1): 52–58. SPE-18086-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/18086-PA.
Langmuir, D. 1997. Aqueous Environmental Chemistry. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Li, L., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Chang, F. F. et al. 2008. Reaction of Simple Organic Acids and Chelating Agents With Calcite. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 3–5 December. IPTC-12886-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-12886-MS.
Lim, K. T., Ramey, H. J. Jr., and Brigham, W. E. 1992. Steam Distillation and Oil Quality Change During Thermal Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE Latin America Petroleum Engineering Conference, Caracas, 8–11 March. SPE-23718-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/23718-MS.
Liu, D., Zhang, H., Chen, X. et al. 2006. Field Tests of Sulfide Removing Biologically in Surface Systems. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24–27 September. SPE-102696-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/102696-MS.
Mahmoud, M. A., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., and De Wolf, C. A. 2015. High-Temperature Laboratory Testing of Illitic Sandstone Outcrop Cores With HCl- Alternative Fluids. SPE Prod & Oper 30 (1): 43–51. SPE-147395-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/147395-PA.
Nasr, T. N., Golbeck, H., Korpany, G. et al. 1998. SAGD Operating Strategies. Presented at the SPE International Conference on Horizontal Well Technology, Calgary, 1–4 November. SPE-50411-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/50411-MS.
Nasr-El-Din, H. A., de Wolf, C. A., Bouwman, A. et al. 2012. A New, Low Corrosive Fluid to Stimulate Wells With Carbon Steel Tubular and Internals. Presented at the SPE Saudi Arabia Section Technical Symposium and Exhibition, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, 8–11 April. SPE-160849-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/160849-MS.
Nengkoda, A., Mandhari, M. S., Ahmed, D. et al. 2008. Scaling Mitigation and Strategy for First Full Field Steam Injection Qarn Alam: History Matching and Modelling. Presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference, Aberdeen, 28–29 May. SPE-113392-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/113392-MS.
Okoye, C. U., Onuba, N. L., Ghalambor, A. et al. 1990. Characterization of Formation Damage in Heavy Oil Formation During Steam Injection. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 22–23 February. SPE-19417-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/19417-MS.
Okoye, C. U., Onuba, N. L., Ghalambor, A. et al. 1991. Formation Damage in Heavy-Oil Formation During Steamflooding. Presented at the SPE Asia- Pacific Conference, Perth, Australia, 4–7 November. SPE-22980-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/22980-MS.
Okoye, C. U., Onuba, N. L., Ghalambor, A. et al. 1992. An Experimental Investigation of Formation Damage in Heavy Oil Reservoir During Steam Injection. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 26–27 February. SPE-23781-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/23781-MS.
Ostroff, A. G. 1981. Injection Water Problems Identified by Laboratory Analysis. Presented at the Middle East Technical Conference and Exhibition, Bahrain, 9–12 March. SPE-9632-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/9632-MS.
Ouled Ameur, Z. and Husein, M. M. 2012. Salting-Out Induced Aggregation for Selective Separation of Vanadyl-Oxide Tetraphenyl-Porphyrin From Heavy Oil. Energy Fuels 26 (7): 4420–4425. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef300482h.
Parkhurst, D. L. and Appelo, C. A. J. 2013. Description of Input and Examples for PHREEQC Version 3—A Computer Program for Speciation, Batch- Reaction, One-Dimensional Transport, and Inverse Geochemical Calculations. In US Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, Section A: Groundwater, Book 6: Modeling Techniques, Chap. 43. Reston, Virginia: US Geological Survey.
Parkinson, M., Munk, T. K., Brookley, J. G. et al. 2010. Stimulation of Multilayered High-Carbonate-Content Sandstone Formations in West Africa Using Chelant-Based Fluids and Mechanical Diversion. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 10–12 February. SPE-128043-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/128043-MS.
Rabie, A., Mahmoud, M. A., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2011. Reaction of GLDA With Calcite: Reaction Kinetics and Transport Study. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 11–13 April. SPE-139816-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/139816-MS.
Rae, P. and Di Lullo, G. 2003. Matrix Acid Stimulation—A Review of the State-Of-The-Art. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, 13–14 May. SPE-82260-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/82260-MS.
Reyes, E. A., Smith, A. L., and Beuterbaugh, A. 2013. Properties and Applications of an Alternative Aminopolycarboxylic Acid for Acidizing of Sandstones and Carbonates. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 5–7 June. SPE- 165142-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/165142-MS.
Rogers, B. A., Burk, M. K., and Stonecipher, S. A. 1998. Designing a Remedial Acid Treatment for Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Turbidite Sands Containing Zeolite Cement. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Conference, Lafayette, Louisiana, 18–19 February. SPE-39595-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/39595-MS.
Schechter, R. S. 1992. Oil Well Stimulation. Eaglewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Smith, R. M., Martell, A. E., and Motekaitis, R. J. 2004. NIST Critically Selected Stability Constants of Metal Complexes Database Version 8.0 for Windows.
NIST Standard Reference Database 46, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, http://www.nist.gov/srd/nist46.cfm.
Sokhanvarian, K., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., and de Wolf, C. A. 2016. Thermal Stability of Various Chelates That Are Used in the Oilfield and Potential Damage due to Their Decomposition Products. SPE Prod & Oper 31 (1): 12–21. SPE-157426-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/157426-PA.
Stolyarov, S. and Alam, A. 2013. Overcoming Challenges While Acidizing Sandstone Formation Successfully in the Gulf of Cambay, Offshore India. Presented at the North Africa Technical Conference and Exhibition, Cairo, 15–17 April. SPE-164631-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/164631-MS.
Thomas, R. L. and Crowe, C. W. 1978. Single-Stage Chemical Treatment Provides Stimulation and Clay Control in Sandstone Formations. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, San Francisco, 12–14 April. SPE-7124-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/7124-MS.
Thomas, R. L., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Lynn, J. D. et al. 2001. Precipitation During the Acidizing of a HT/HP Illitic Sandstone Reservoir in Eastern Saudi Arabia: A Laboratory Study. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–3 October. SPE- 71690-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/71690-MS.
Thornton, S. D. and Radke, C. J. 1988. Dissolution and Condensation Kinetics of Silica in Alkaline Solution. SPE Res Eng 3 (2): 743–752. SPE-13601- PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/13601-PA.
Wang, W. and Wei, W. 2016. Silica and Silicate Scale Formation and Control: Scale Modeling, Lab Testing, Scale Characterization, and Field Observation. Presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference and Exhibition, Aberdeen, 11–12 May. SPE-179897-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179897-MS.
Wang, S., McMahon, J., Wylde, J. et al. 2010. Scale Inhibitor Solutions for High Temperature Wells in a Steam Drive Reservoir. Presented at CORROSION 2010, San Antonio, Texas, 14–18 March. NACE-10133.
Yang, F., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., and Harbi, B. A. 2012. Acidizing Sandstone Reservoirs Using HF and Organic Acids. Presented at the SPE International Production and Operations Conference and Exhibition, Doha, 14–16 May. SPE-157250-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/157250-MS.
Young, B. M., McLaughlin, H. C., and Borchardt, J. K. 1980. Clay Stabilization Agents—Their Effectiveness in High-Temperature Steam. J Pet Technol 32 (12): 2121–2131. SPE-7895-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/7895-PA.
Zhou, L. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2016. Acidizing Sandstone Formations Using a Sandstone Acid System for High Temperatures. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference & Exhibition, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 5–7 June. SPE-165084-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/165084-MS.