New Dynamic-Surface-Tension Analysis Yields Improved Residual Surfactant Measurements in Flowback and Produced Waters
- Jayant P. Rane (Multi-Chem, A Halliburton Service) | Liang Xu (Multi-Chem, A Halliburton Service)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- August 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 223 - 228
- 2015.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Well productivity, Dynamic surface tension, Diffusivity, Residual surfactant
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 346 since 2007
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Surfactant is a significant component within fracturing-fluid additives that is used for enhancing oil and gas production following stimulation of unconventional reservoirs. To help ensure optimal applications of surfactants, operating and service companies have been searching for tools for tracking surfactant residuals in flowback and produced waters, which possibly can be correlated with well productivity. This paper discusses the residual surfactant concentration measured in produced water from example Barnett shale formation wells by use of a dynamic surface tension (DST) technique, which yields much more accurate measurements. DST measurement by maximum bubble-pressure technique is well-known, but it has not been use explicitly for the application of residual surfactant measurement in produced water. A comparison of DST includes evaluating the diffusion coefficient to the reaction kinetics of adsorption of a known molecule(s) in produced water. Short-time kinetics of adsorption of different molecules vary on the basis of chemical nature and molecular size. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy is used to confirm the results. An estimate of residual concentrations from UV-Vis appears to be coherent with DST-measurement values.
Such measurements can be useful in determining the surfactant concentration during pumping and surfactant performance during and after hydraulic-fracturing operations. Additionally, these measurements serve a vital role in tailoring the surfactant additive to specific reservoir conditions to achieve higher oil recovery. Real-time production results from these different wells are analyzed and appear dependent on the corresponding residual surfactant concentrations from produced waters. This unique technique is new to the authors’ knowledge for its use to study and analyze produced water for surfactant-additive concentration.
|File Size||839 KB||Number of Pages||6|
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