Multiphase Rate-Transient Analysis in Unconventional Reservoirs: Theory and Application
- Ilkay Uzun (Colorado School of Mines) | Basak Kurtoglu (Marathon Oil Company) | Hossein Kazemi (Colorado School of Mines)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- October 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 553 - 566
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Rate Transient Analysis , Multiphase, Flow Regime Characteristics
- 13 in the last 30 days
- 1,588 since 2007
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In unconventional reservoirs, production data are generally analyzed by use of rate-transient techniques derived from single phase linear-flow models. Such linear-flow models use rate normalized pressure, which is pressure drop divided by reservoir flow rate vs. square root of time. In practice, the well-fluid production includes water, oil, and gas. The oil can be light oil, volatile oil, and gas/condensate as in the Bakken, Eagle Ford, and Barnett, respectively. Thus, single-phase analysis needs modification to account for production of fluid mixtures. In this paper, we present a multiphase-pressure-diffusivity equation to analyze multiphase flow in single- and dual-porosity models of unconventional reservoirs. Our approach is similar to the work presented by Perrine (1956); however, our approach has a theoretical foundation, whereas Perrine (1956) used pragmatic engineering analogy for constant flow rate in vertical wells only. In addition to oil, gas, and formation brine, our method accounts for gas/condensate production, and the flowback of the injected hydraulic-fracturing fluids. Overall, our proposed approach is more comprehensive than the single-phase models but maintains the simplicity of the conventional methods. Our paper includes diagnostic plots of rate-normalized well pressure for light oils and gas/condensates in unconventional reservoirs. Data from two Bakken and two Eagle Ford wells will be presented to demonstrate the usefulness of our approach. In addition to the mathematical analysis of flow-rate and pressure data, we will present the effect of well-stimulation and fluid-lift methods on the flow-rate characteristics of Bakken and Eagle Ford wells.
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