A Laboratory and Numerical-Simulation Study of Co-Optimizing CO2 Storage and CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery
- Fatemeh Kamali (The University of New South Wales) | Furqan Le-Hussain (The University of New South Wales) | Yildiray Cinar (The University of New South Wales)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,227 - 1,237
- 2015.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- CO2 EOR, carbon dioxide, CO2 storage, enhanced oil recovery, Co-optimization
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 769 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
This paper presents experimental observations that delineate co-optimization of carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and storage. Pure supercritical CO2 is injected into a homogeneous outcrop sandstone sample saturated with oil and immobile water under various miscibility conditions. A mixture of hexane and decane is used for the oil phase. Experiments are run at 70°C and three different pressures (1,300, 1,700, and 2,100 psi). Each pressure is determined by use of a pressure/volume/temperature simulator to create immiscible, near-miscible, and miscible displacements. Oil recovery, differential pressure, and compositions are recorded during experiments. A co-optimization function for CO2 storage and incremental oil is defined and calculated using the measured data for each experiment. A compositional reservoir simulator is then used to examine gravity effects on displacements and to derive relative permeabilities.
Experimental observations demonstrate that almost similar oil recovery is achieved during miscible and near-miscible displacements whereas approximately 18% less recovery is recorded in the immiscible displacement. More heavy component (decane) is recovered in the miscible and near-miscible displacements than in the immiscible displacement. The co-optimization function suggests that the near-miscible displacement yields the highest CO2-storage efficiency and displays the best performance for coupling CO2 EOR and storage. Numerical simulations show that, even on the laboratory scale, there are significant gravity effects in the near-miscible and miscible displacements. It is revealed that the near-miscible and miscible recoveries depend strongly on the endpoint effective CO2 permeability.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Ahmadi, K. and Johns, R. T. 2011. Multiple-Mixing-Cell Method for MMP Calculations. SPE J. 16 (4): 733–742. SPE-116823-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116823-PA.
Bachu, S., Gunter, W. D., and Perkins, E. H. 1994. Aquifer Disposal of CO2: Hydrodynamic and Mineral Trapping. Energy Conversion and Management 35 (4): 269–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0196-8904(94)90060-4.
Bachu, S. and Shaw, J. 2003. Evaluation of the CO2 Sequestration Capacity in Alberta’s Oil and Gas Reservoirs at Depletion and the Effect of Underlying Aquifers. J Can Pet Technol 42 (9): 51–61. PETSOC-03-09-02-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/03-09-02-MS.
Bradshaw, J., Bachu, S., Bonijoly, D. et al. 2007. CO2 Storage Capacity Estimation: Issues and Development of Standards. International J. Greenhouse Gas Control 1 (1): 62–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1750-5836(07)00027-8.
Bui, L. H. 2010. Near Miscible CO2 Application to Improve Oil Recovery. MS thesis, University of Kansas (July 2010).
Burger, J. E., Rao, B., and Mohanty, K. K. 1994. Effect of Phase Behavior on Bypassing in Enriched Gasfloods. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (2): 112–118. SPE-25254-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25254-PA.
Chang, Y.-B., Lim, M. T., Pope, G. A. et al. 1994. CO2 Flow Patterns Under Multiphase Flow: Heterogeneous Field-Scale Conditions. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (3): 208–216. SPE-22654-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22654-PA.
Charlson, G. S., Bilhartz, H. L. Jr., and Stalkup, F. I. 1978. Use of Time-Lapse Logging Techniques n Evaluating the Willard Unit CO2 Flood Mini-Test. SPE-7049-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7049-PA.
Chung, F. T. H., Jones, R. A., and Nguyen, H. T. 1988. Measurements and Correlations of the Physical Properties of CO2-Heavy Crude Oil Mixtures. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3 (3): 822–828. SPE-15080-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15080-PA.
CMG-GEM. 2013. Compositional and Unconventional Reservoir Simulator. In 2013 User Guide. Calgary, Canada: CMG.
CMG-WINPROP PVT. 2013. Numerical Simulator. In 2013 User Guide. Calgary, Canada: CMG.
Craig, F. F. Jr., Sanderlin, J. L., Moore, D. W. et al. 1957. A Laboratory Study of Gravity Segregation in Frontal Drives. SPE J. 210: 275–282. SPE-676-G-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/676-G-PA.
Crane, F. E., Kendall, H. A., and Gardner, G. H. F. 1963. Some Experiments on the Flow of Miscible Fluids of Unequal Density Through Porous Media. SPE J. 3 (4): 277–280. SPE-535-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/535-PA.
Danesh, A. 1998. PVT and Phase Behaviour of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids. Elsevier.
Derakhshanfar, M., Nasehi, M., and Asghari, K. 2012. Simulation Study of CO2-Assisted Waterflooding for Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery and Geological Storage. Presented at the Carbon Management Technology Conference, Orlando, Florida, USA. 7–9 February. CMTC-151183-MS.
Dicharry, R. M., Perryman, T. L., and Ronquille, J. D. 1973. Evaluation and Design of a CO2 Miscible Flood Project-SACROC Unit, Kelly-Snyder Field. J Pet Technol 25 (11): 1309–1318. SPE-4083-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4083-PA.
Dos Santos, R. L. A., Bedrikovetsky, P., and Holleben, C. R. 1997. Optimal Design and Planning for Laboratory Corefloods. Presented at the Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 30 August–3 September. SPE-39038-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39038-PA.
Dria, D. E., Pope, G. A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 1993. Three-Phase Gas/Oil/Brine Relative Permeabilities Measured Under CO2 Flooding Conditions. SPE Res Eval & Eng 8 (2): 143–150. SPE-20184-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20184-PA.
Fayers, F. J. and Newley, T. M. J. 1988. Detailed Validation of an Empirical Model for Viscous Fingering With Gravity Effects. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3 (2): 542– 550. SPE-15993-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15993-PA.
Ghanbarnezhad, R. and Lake, L. W. 2010. Simultaneous Water-Gas-Injection Performance Under Loss of Miscibility. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 24–28 April. SPE-129966-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129966-MS.
Graue, D. J. and Blevins, T. R. 1978. SACROC Tertiary CO2 Pilot Project. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 16–19 April. SPE-7090-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7090-MS.
Green, D. W. and Willhite, G. P. 1998. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Richardson, Texas: Henry L. Doherty Memorial Fund of AIME, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Hansen, P. W. 1977. A CO2 Tertiary Recovery Pilot Little Creek Field, Mississippi. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, USA, 9–12 October. SPE-6747-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6747-MS.
Hsu, C.-F., Morell, J. I., and Falls, A. H. 1997. Field-Scale CO2-Flood Simulations and Their Impact on the Performance of the Wasson Denver Unit. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (1): 4–11. SPE-29116-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29116-PA.
Hussain, F., Cinar, Y., and Bedrikovetsky, P. G. 2010. Comparison of Methods for Drainage Relative Permeability Estimation From Displacement Tests. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 24–28 April. SPE-129678-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129678-MS.
Ide, S. T., Jessen, K., and Orr Jr., F. M. 2007. Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers: Effects of Gravity, Viscous, and Capillary Forces on Amount and Timing of Trapping. International J. Greenhouse Gas Control 1 (4): 481–491. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1750-5836(07)00091-6.
Jamshidnezhad, M., Shen, C., Kool, P. H. et al. 2010. Improving Injectivity to Fight Gravity Segregation in Gas Enhanced Oil Recovery. SPE J. 15 (1): 91–104. SPE-112375-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/112375-PA.
Jessen, K., Kovscek, A. R., and Orr Jr., F. M. 2005. Increasing CO2 Storage in Oil Recovery. Energy Conversion and Management 46 (2): 293–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2004.02.019.
Jessen, K., Wang, Y., Ermakov, P. et al. 1999. Fast, Approximate Solutions for 1D Multicomponent Gas Injection Problems. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, USA, 3–6 October. SPE-56608-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56608-MS.
Johansen, T., Wang, Y., Orr, F. M. et al. 2005. Four-Component Gas/Oil Displacements in One Dimension: Part I: Global Triangular Structure. Transport in Porous Media 61 (1): 59–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-004-6748-6.
Johns, R. T. 1992. Analytical Theory of Multicomponent Gas Drives With Two-Phase Mass Transfer. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, California (May 1992).
Johns, R. T., Pashupati, S., and Subramanian, S. K. 2000. Effect of Gas Enrichment Above the MME on Oil Recovery in Enriched-Gas Floods. SPE J. 5 (3): 331–338. SPE-65704-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65704-PA.
Kamali, F. and Cinar, Y. 2014. Co-Optimizing Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO2 Storage by Simultaneous Water and CO2 Injection. Energy, Exploration, and Exploitation J. 32 (2): 281–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1260/0144-59188.8.131.521.
Kovscek, A. R. and Cakici, M. D. 2005. Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide and Enhanced Oil Recovery. II. Cooptimization of Storage and Recovery. Energy Conversion and Management 46 (11–12): 1941–1956. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2004.09.009.
Kulkarni, M. M. and Rao, D. N. 2005. Experimental Investigation of Miscible Secondary Gas Injection. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, USA, 9–12 October. SPE-95975-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95975-MS.
Kumar, A., Noh, M., Pope, G. A. et al. 2004. Reservoir Simulation of CO2 Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers. Presented at the SPE/DOE Fourteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 17–21 April. SPE-89343-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89343-MS.
Law, D. H. S. and Bachu, S. 1996. Hydrogeological and Numerical Analysis of CO2 Disposal in Deep Aquifers in the Alberta Sedimentary Basin. Energy Conversion and Management 37 (6–8): 1167–1174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0196-8904(95)00315-0.
Leach, M. P. and Yellig, W. F. 1981. Compositional Model Studies—CO2 Oil-Displacement Mechanisms. SPE J. 21 (1): 89–97. SPE-8368-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8368-PA.
Li, L., Khorsandi, S., Johns, R. T. et al. 2014. Reduced-Order Model for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery and Storage Using a Gravity-Enhanced Process. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 27–29 October. SPE-170745-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170745-MS.
Li, F. F., Yang, S. L., Chen, H. et al. 2015. An Improved Method to Study CO2–Oil Relative Permeability Under Miscible Conditions. J. Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology 5 (1): 45–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13202-014-0122-1.
Malik, Q. M. and Islam, M. R. 2000. CO2 Injection in the Weyburn Field of Canada: Optimization of Enhanced Oil Recovery and Greenhouse Gas Storage With Horizontal Wells. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 3–5 April. SPE-59327-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59327-MS.
Moortgat, J. B., Firoozabadi, A., Li, Z. et al. 2013. Co2 Injection in Vertical and Horizontal Cores: Measurements and Numerical Simulation. SPE J. 18 (2): 331–344. SPE-135563-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/135563-PA.
Moortgat, J., Li, Z., and Firoozabadi, A. 2011. Three-Phase Compositional Modeling of CO2 Injection by Higher-Order Finite Element Methods With CPA Equation of State. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 21–23 February. SPE-141907-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141907-MS.
Orr Jr., F. M. 2007. Theory of Gas Injection Processes. Denmark: Tie-Line Publication.
Pande, K. K. 1992. Effects of Gravity and Viscous Crossflow on Hydrocarbon Miscible Flood Performance in Heterogeneous Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC, USA, 4–7 October. SPE-24935-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24935-MS.
Parvazdavani, M., Masihi, M., and Ghazanfari, M. H. 2013. Gas–Oil Relative Permeability at Near Miscible Conditions: An Experimental and Modeling Approach. Scientia Iranica 20 (3): 626–636. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scient.2012.11.007.
Pires, A. P., Bedrikovetsky, P. G., and Shapiro, A. A. 2004. Analytical Model for 1D Gas Flooding: Splitting between Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 17–21 April. SPE-89441-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89441-MS.
Pontious, S. B. and Tham, M. J. 1978. North Cross (Devonian) Unit CO2 Flood—Review of Flood Performance and Numerical Simulation Model. J Pet Technol 30 (12): 1706–1714. SPE-6390-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6390-PA.
Qi, R., Laforce, T. C., and Blunt, M. J. 2008. Design of Carbon Dioxide Storage in Oil Fields. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, USA, 21–24 September. SPE-115663-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115663-MS.
Rashid, A., Liu, K., Sayem, T. et al. 2–2013. Laboratory Investigation of Factors Affecting CO Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2–4 July. SPE-165270-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165270-MS.
Reid, R., Prausnitz, J., and Sherwood, T. K. 1977. The Properties of Gases and Liquids, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Rossen, W. R., Van Duijn, C. J., Nguyen, Q. P. et al. 2010. Injection Strategies to Overcome Gravity Segregation in Simultaneous Gas and Water Injection Into Homogeneous Reservoirs. SPE J. 15 (1): 76–90. SPE-99794-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99794-PA.
Shyeh-Yung, J. G. J. 1991. Mechanisms of Miscible Oil Recovery: Effects of Pressure on Miscible and Near-Miscible Displacements of Oil by Carbon Dioxide. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 6–9 October. SPE-22651-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22651-MS.
Sohrabi, M., Danesh, A., Tehrani, D. et al. 2008. Microscopic Mechanisms of Oil Recovery by Near-Miscible Gas Injection. Transport in Porous Media 72 (3): 351–367.
Solano, R., Johns, R. T., and Lake, L. W. 2001. Impact of Reservoir Mixing on Recovery in Enriched-Gas Drives Above the Minimum Miscibility Enrichment. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (5): 358–365. SPE-73829-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73829-PA.
Stalkup, F. I. 1983. Miscible Displacement. New York: Henry L. Doherty Memorial Fund of AIME, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.
Sun, S. and Firoozabadi, A. 2009. Compositional Modeling in Three-Phase Flow for CO2 and Other Fluid Injections Using Higher-Order Finite Element Methods. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 4–7 October. SPE-124907-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124907-MS.
Thomas, F. B., Holowach, N., Zhou, X. et al. 1994. Miscible or Near-Miscible Gas Injection, Which Is Better? Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 17–20 April. SPE-27811-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27811-MS.
Thrash, J. C. 1979. Twofreds Field A Tertiary Oil Recovery Project. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 23–26 September. SPE-8382-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8382-MS.
Voskov, D. V. 2011. Modeling of Multicomponent Flow in Porous Media With Arbitrary Phase Changes. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, USA, 30 October–2 November. SPE-146862-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146862-MS.
Wang, Y. 1998. Analytical Calculation of Minimum Miscibility Pressure. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, California (July 1998).
Wang, Y. U. N., Dindoruk, B., Johansen, T. et al. 2005. Four-Component Gas/Oil Displacements in One Dimension: Part II: Analytical Solutions for Constant Equilibrium Ratios. Transport in Porous Media 61 (2): 177–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-004-7463-z.
Welge, H. J. 1952. A Simplified Method for Computing Oil Recovery by Gas or Water Drive. J Pet Technol 4 (4): 91–98. SPE-124-G-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124-G-PA.
Xiao, C., Harris, M. L., Wang, F. P. et al. 2011. Field Testing and Numerical Simulation of Combined CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery and Storage in the SACROC Field. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Alberta, Canada, 15–17 November. SPE-147544-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147544-MS.
Youngren, G. K. and Charlson, G. S. 1980. History Match Analysis of the Little Creek CO2 Pilot Test. J Pet Technol 32 (11): 2042–2052. SPE-8200-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8200-PA.
Yuan, H. 2003. Application of Miscibility Calculations to Gas Floods. PhD thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (August 2003).
Yuan, H. and Johns, R. T. 2005. Simplified Method for Calculation of Minimum Miscibility Pressure or Enrichment. SPE J. 10 (4): 416–425. SPE-77381-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77381-PA.
Zhao, Y., Song, Y., Liu, Y. et al. 2011. Visualization of CO2 and Oil Immiscible and Miscible Flow Processes in Porous Media Using NMR Micro-Imaging. Petrol. Sci. 8 (2): 183–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12182-011-0133-1.
Zhou, D., Fayers, F. J., and Orr Jr., F. M. 1994. Scaling of Multiphase Flow in Simple Heterogeneous Porous Media. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (8): 173–178. SPE-27833-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27833-PA.