Experimental Investigation of Wettability Alteration in Oil-Wet Reservoirs Containing Heavy Oil
- Mohammed Almojtaba Mohammed (University of Alberta) | Tayfun Babadagli (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- October 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 633 - 644
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Chemicals, Carbonates, Wettability alteration, Heavy-oil, Solvent injection
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 622 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Solvent injection is an effective way to lower the viscosity of heavy oil and is considered when thermal techniques are not practically applicable. However, for the economic success of the method, large fractions of the injected solvent must be recovered. This requires further treatments of the reservoir, including water injection with chemicals to penetrate into the oil-wet matrix by changing the wettability. In this paper, we investigate the effect of wettability alteration of the oil-wet rock on solvent as well as oil recovery. Different wettability-alteration agents were tested, including cationic and anionic surfactants, ionic liquids, nanofluids, high-pH solutions, and low-salinity water. The potential of these materials to modify the wettability of aged sandstone and limestone samples was evaluated by use of imbibition tests. After conducting a total of 35 experiments, the most-promising wettability-alteration agents were identified to be anionic surfactants and high-pH solutions in addition to low-salinity water for the sandstone cases. Ion-pair interaction in sandstone and the dissolution of mixed-wet clay particles in carbonate are the main mechanisms of wettability alteration by those chemicals. Cationic surfactants and high-pH solutions were identified as the best wettability modifiers for the limestone samples. Although cationic surfactant changes the wettability by the ion-pair-interaction mechanism, the pH solution is believed to restore the water-wetness by decreasing the attraction forces between calcite and organic components. Ionic liquid at low concentration is able to alter the wettability of carbonate better than other conventional wettability modifiers. One important finding of this work is that solvent injection in heavy-oil-containing reservoirs is essential to condition the reservoir (i.e., to dilute the heavy oil before any wettability-alteration treatment can take place).
|File Size||580 KB||Number of Pages||12|
Al-Bahlani, A. M. and Babadagli, T. 2008. Heavy-Oil Recovery in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs with Varying Wettability by Steam Solvent Co-Injection. Presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy-Oil Symposium, Calgary, 20–23 October. SPE-117626-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/117626-MS.
Anderson, W. G. 1986. Wettability Literature Survey—Part I: Rock/Oil/Brine Interactions and the Effects of Core Handling on Wettability. J. Pet Technol 38 (10): 1125–1144. SPE-13932-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13932-PA.
Babadagli, T. 2002. Scaling of Capillary Imbibition under Static Thermal and Dynamic Fracture Flow Conditions. J. of Petroleum Science and Eng 33 (4): 223–239.
Buckley, J. S., Takamura, K., and Morrow, N. R. 1989. Influence of Electric Surface Charges on the Wetting Properties of Crude Oils. SPE Res Eng 4 (3): 332–340. SPE-16964-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16964-PA.
Buckley, J. and Liu, Y. 1998. Some Mechanisms of Crude Oil/Brine/Solid Interactions. J. of Petroleum Science and Eng 20 (3–4): 155–160.
Coskuner, G., Naderi, K., and Babadagli, T. 2013. An Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology as a Follow Up to Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference-Canada, 11–13 June, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. SPE-165385-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165385-MS.
Giraldo, J., Benjumea, P., Lopera, S. et al. 2013. ´Wettability Alteration of Sandstone Cores by Alumina-Based Nanofluids. Energ. Fuel. 27: 3659–3665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef4002956
Gupta, R. and Mohanty, K. 2011. Wettability Alteration Mechanism for Oil Recovery From Fractured Carbonate Rocks. Transport Porous Med. 87 (2): 635–652. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-010-9706-5.
Elmofty, O. 2012. Surfactant Enhanced Oil Recovery by Wettability Alteration in Sandstone Reservoirs. Master’s thesis, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri.
Hamouda, A. A. and Valderhaug, O. M. 2014. Investigating Enhanced Oil Recovery from Sandstone by Low-Salinity Water and Fluid/Rock Interaction. Energ. Fuel. 28 (2): 898–908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef4020857.
Hatiboglu, C. U. and Babadagli, T. 2008. Primary and Secondary Oil Recovery from Different-Wettability Rocks by Countercurrent Diffusion and Spontaneous Imbibition. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (2): 418–428. SPE-94120-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94120-PA.
Hirasaki, G. and Zhang, D. L. 2003. Surface Chemistry of Oil Recovery from Fractured, Oil-Wet, Carbonate Formation. Presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 5–8 February. SPE-80988-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80988-MS.
Hogshead, C. G., Manias, E., Williams, P. et al. 2010. Studies of Bitumen-Silica and Oil-Silica Interactions in Ionic Liquids. Energ. Fuel. 25 (1): 293–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef101404k.
Karimi, A., Fakhroueian, Z., Bahramian, A. et al. 2012. Wettability Alteration in Carbonates using Zirconium Oxide Nanofluids: EOR Implications. Energ. Fuel. 26 (2): 1028–1036. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef201475u.
Lager, A., Webb, K. J. and Black, C. J. 2006. Low Salinity Oil Recovery–An Experimental Investigation. Presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Trondheim, Norway, 12–16 September. SCA2006-36.
Maghzi, A., Mohammadi, S., Ghazanfari, M. H. et al. 2012. Monitoring Wettability Alteration by Silica Nanoparticles during Water Flooding to Heavy Oils in Five-Spot Systems: A Pore-Level Investigation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 40 (July): 168–176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2012.03.004.
Malham, I. B., Letellier, P. and Turmine, M. 2006. Evidence of a Phase Transition in Water-1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate and Water-1-Butyl-2, 3-Dimethylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate Mixtures at 298 K: Determination of the Surface Thermal Coefficient, bT,P. J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (29): 14212–14214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp061392k.
Mohammed, M. and Babadagli, T. 2013. Efficiency of Solvent Retrieval during Steam-Over-Solvent Injection in Fractured Reservoirs (SOSFR) Method: Core Scale Experimentation. Paper presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference-Canada, Calgary, AB, Canada, 11–13 June.
Mohammed, M. and Babadagli, T. 2015. Wettability alteration: A comprehensive review of materials/methods and testing the selected ones on heavy-oil containing oil-wet systems. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 220 (June): 54–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2015.02.006.
Morrow, N. and Buckley, J. 2011. Improved Oil Recovery by Low-Salinity Waterflooding. J. Pet. Tech 63 (5): 106–112. SPE-129421-JPT. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129421-JPT.
Naderi, K., Babadagli, T., and Coskuner, G. 2013. Bitumen Recovery by the SOS-FR (Steam-Over-Solvent Injection in Fractured Reservoirs) Method: An Experimental Study on Grosmont Carbonates. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference-Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada,
11–13 June. SPE-165530-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165530-MS.
Painter, P., Williams, P. and Lupinsky, A. 2010. Recovery of Bitumen from Utah Tar Sands Using Ionic Liquids. Energ. Fuel. 24 (9): 5081–5088. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef100765u.
Salehi, M., Johnson, S. J. and Liang, J. 2008. Mechanistic Study of Wettability Alteration Using Surfactants with Applications in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Langmuir 24 (24): 14099–14107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la802464u.
Standnes, D. C. and Austad, T. 2000. Wettability Alteration in Chalk 2. Mechanism for Wettability Alteration from Oil-Wet to Water-Wet using Surfactants. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 28 (3): 123–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00084-X.
Standnes, D. C. and Austad, T. 2003. Wettability Alteration in Carbonates: Low-Cost Ammonium Surfactants Based on Bio-Derivatives from the Coconut Palm as Active Chemicals to Change the Wettability from Oil-Wet to Water-Wet Conditions. Colloid. Surface. A 218 (1–3): 161–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(02)00581-2.
Sydansk, R. D. 1982. Elevated-Temperature Caustic/Sandstone Interaction: Implications for Improving Oil Recovery. SPE J. 22 (4): 453–462. SPE-9810-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9810-PA.
Tang, G. Q. and Morrow, N. R. 1997. Salinity Temperature, Oil Composition, and Oil Recovery by Waterflooding. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (4): 269–276. SPE-36680-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36680-PA.
Tang, G. Q. and Morrow, N. R. 1999. Influence of Brine Composition and Fines Migration on Crude oil/Brine/Rock Interactions and Oil Recovery. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 24 (2): 99–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(99)00034-0.
Wang, Y., Xu, H., Yu, W. et al. 2011. Surfactant Induced Reservoir Wettability Alteration: Recent Theoretical and Experimental Advances in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Pet. Sci. 8 (4): 463–476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12182-011-0164-7.
Zhang, J., Nguyen, Q. P., Flaaten, A. K. et al. 2008. Mechanisms of Enhanced Natural Imbibition with Novel Chemicals. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 20–23 April. SPE-113453-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113453-MS.