The First Visualization of Acid Treatments on Carbonates With 3D Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance Imaging
- Manuel Krebs (Clausthal University of Technology) | Bernhard Lungwitz (Schlumberger) | Andre Souza (Schlumberger) | Alexandre Pépin (Schlumberger) | Sandra Montoya (Schlumberger) | Peter Schlicht (Schlumberger) | Austin Boyd (Schlumberger) | Edson Vidoto (University of Sao Paulo) | Roberson Polli (University of Sao Paulo) | Tito Bonagamba (University of Sao Paulo)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 678 - 688
- 2015.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- acidizing, NMRI nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, core flow testing
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 346 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Carbonate reservoirs often show great heterogeneity in their inner rock structure, and stimulation treatments are often necessary to maintain or establish fluid production. Therefore, core-flow tests are usually conducted to test and model stimulation treatments within a laboratory scale to predict their performance. The visualization of wormholes that were created within core-flow tests requires novel technologies for evaluation and pathway-prediction purposes. Unfortunately, past visualization techniques were always associated with the destruction of the core sample, creating demand for nondestructive methods.
Nuclear-magnetic-resonance imaging (NMRI) is such a method that fulfills the approach of being nondestructive. The technology is widely known by medical applications, and this study developed a procedure on how to use the NMRI technology to visualize wormholes with NMRI in 3D.
The study was started by initially choosing and obtaining various core samples that have different contents of calcite and dolomite. These core samples were imaged with the NMRI and microfocus-computed-tomography (µCT) technology in their unchanged state, and basic petrophysical experiments were conducted for initial experiments. The µCT technology was used as a reference visualization technique, because it provides a very high resolution with a corresponding high level of detail. Afterward, core-flow tests were conducted on the core samples with various acid systems and wormholes generated. Finally, the core samples with wormholes were imaged again with the NMRI and µCT technology, whereby the NMRI acquisition technique was improved toward imaging of rock samples, and the results were compared with the µCT results. The NMRI results showed moderate imaging achievements for the unchanged rock samples and high-quality imaging achievements for the extracted wormholes.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Akin, S. and Kovscek, A. 2003. Computed Tomography in Petroleum Engineering Research. London: The Geological Society Publishing House.
Allison, J.2012. MRI Pulse Sequences. Augusta.
Berteux, J., Piot, B., and Thomas, R. 1986. Carbonate Reservoirs Fluid Selection Guide for Matrix Treatment. Copyright Dowell Schlumberger.
Carlson, W.D., Rowe, T., Ketcham, R.A. et al. 2003. Applications of High-Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography in Petrology, Meteoritics and Palaeontology. London: The Geological Society Publishing House.
Center for Information Technology (CIT). 2014. MIPAV 7.2.0. http://mipav.cit.nih.gov/clickwrap.php
Coates, G.R., Xiao, L., and Prammer, M.G. 1999. NMR Logging Principles and Applications. Houston: Halliburton Energy Services.
Cohen, M. and Weisskopf, R. 1991. Ultra-Fast Imaging. J. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 9 (1): 1–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0730-725X(91)90094-3.
de Azambuja Filho, N., Arienti, L., and da Cruz, F. 1998. Guidebook to the Rift-Drift Sergipe-Alagoas Passive Margin Basin, Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: PETROBRAS.
de Oliveira, T., Melo, A., Oliveira, J. et al. Pereira, A. 2012. Numerical Simulation of the Acidizing Process and PVBT Extraction Methodology Including Porosity/Permeability and Mineralogy Heterogeneity. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition for Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 15–17 February. SPE-151823-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/151823-MS.
Du, J. 2012. Quantitative Ultrashort TE (UTE) Imaging of Short T2 Tissues. In Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470034590.emrstm1276.
Frahm, J., Haase, A., and Matthaei, D. 1986. Rapid Three-Dimensional MR Imaging Using the FLASH Technique. J. Computer-Assisted Tomography 10 (2): 363–368.
Holmes, J. and Bydder, G. 2005. MR Imaging With Ultrashort TE (UTE) Pulse Sequences: Basic Principles. Radiography 11 (3): 163–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radi.2004.07.007.
Hornak, J.P. 1996–2010. The Basics of MRI. (Rochester Institute of Technology), http://www.cis.rit.edu/htbooks/mri/inside.htm (accessed 18 October 2012).
Kocurek Industries. 2013. Hard Rock Division Texas, http://www.kocurekindustries.com/product_details.php?cat_id=18 (accessed 26 April 2013).
MathWorks. 2013. MATLAB R2013a. Natick, Massachusetts: The Mathworks, Inc.
Mees, F., Swennen, R., Van Geet, M. et al. 2003. Applications of X-ray Computed Tomography in the Geosciences. London: The Geological Society Publishing House.
Mueller, S. 2006. Parallele Echtzeitbildgebungstechniken Fuer Die Interventionelle Magnetresonanztomographie. Heidelberg: Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet.
Panepucci, H. and Tannus, A. 1994. The Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Instituto de Física de São Carlos–Universidade de São Paulo), http://mri.if.sc.usp.br/port/ (accessed 5 November 2012).
Papoti, D. 2006. Transdutores de RF Para Experimentos de Imagens de Pequenos Animais. Instituto de Fisica Sao Carlos. Universidade de Sao Paulo.
Powell, W. 2004. Indiana Limestone (The City University of New York–Brooklyn College), http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/powell/613webpage/NYCbuilding/IndianaLimestone/IndianaLimestone.htm (accessed 25 April 2013).
Rohde, R. 2005. GeoWhen Database, 18 January 2005, http://www.stratigraphy.org/bak/geowhen/stages/Missourian.html (accessed 26 April 2013).
Tyler, D., Robson, M., Henkelman, R. et al. 2007. Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Ultrashort TE (UTE) PULSE Sequences: Technical Considerations. J. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 25 (2): 279–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.20851.