Experimental Determination of the Effect of Pressure on Fluid Loss for Linear and Crosslinked Fracturing Fluids
- Javier Sanchez Reyes (Schlumberger) | Richard D. Hutchins (Schlumberger) | Michael D. Parris (Schlumberger (retired))
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- August 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 205 - 214
- 2015.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- crosslinked fluids, leakoff, borate fluids, fluid loss
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 414 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Recent studies have offered evidence of unique shear viscosity loss of borate-crosslinked fracturing fluids when exposed to hydrostatic pressures, such as those encountered during deepwater hydraulic fracturing. This phenomenon can have important implications for proppant transport and for the resulting fracture geometry that needs to be accounted for in fracture design. Another important aspect for fracture design is the fluid loss. Because crosslinked fluids have superior fluid-loss characteristics compared with linear polymers, the question arises as to whether fluid loss of borate-crosslinked formulations is also affected by pressure. Fluid loss is a fundamental property in hydraulic-fracturing treatments and may dictate the attainable fracture geometry and the retained conductivity. Prior knowledge of fluid loss is also important for designing special additives to overcome the effect of excessive fluid loss.
This experimental study was designed to determine the pressure effect on linear guar and both borate- and zirconium-crosslinked polymers. The concept of melt point used for the viscosity dependence was incorporated to select fluids. A unique high-pressure/high-temperature fluid-loss apparatus was developed for the experimental testing. Test parameters varied from 160 to 260°F, 1,000 to 9,000 psi, and 0.1- to 10-md sandstone cores. Spurt and fluid-loss coefficients were determined and compared to determine the pressure effect.
The results indicate that the fluid-loss behavior of fluids comprising borate-crosslinked guar is susceptible to moderate pressure effects. In particular, spurt losses increased with pressure, whereas fluid-loss coefficients were independent of pressure. The increase in spurt loss varied from 316% for Bandera core (0.1 to 0.4 md) to 1,533% for Parker core (3 to 10 md) when pressure increased from 1,100 to 9,000 psi, exhibiting a pronounced dependency on permeability. Conversely, the fluid-loss behavior for linear guar or derivatized guar (carboxymethyl hydroxypropyl guar) crosslinked with zirconium was not influenced by pressure. The implications of these findings for hydraulic-fracturing applications are also discussed.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||10|
Ayoub, J. A., Hutchins, R. D., van der Bas, F. et al. 2009. New Results Improve Fracture-Cleanup Characterization and Damage Mitigation. SPE Prod & Oper 24 (3): 374–380. SPE-102326-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102326-PA.
Economides, M. J. and Nolte, K. G. 2000. Reservoir Stimulation, third edition. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
England, K. W. and Parris, M. D. 2010. Viscosity Influences of High Pressure on Borate Crosslinked Gels. Presented at the SPE Deepwater Drilling and Completions Conference, Galveston, Texas, USA, 5–6 October. SPE-136187-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/136187-MS.
England, K. W. and Parris, M. D. 2011. The Unexpected Rheological Behavior of Borate-Crosslinked Gels. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 24–26 January. SPE-140400-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140400-MS.
Ford, W. G. F. and Penny, G. S. 1988. Influence of Downhole Conditions on the Leakoff Properties of Fracturing Fluids. SPE Prod Eng 3 (1): 43–51. SPE-14016-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14016-PA.
Gulbis, J., 1983. Dynamic Fluid Loss of Fracturing Fluids. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Francisco, California, USA, 5–8 October. SPE-12154-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12154-MS.
ISO 13503-1:2011, Petroleum and natural gas industries—Completion fluids and materials—Part 1: Measurement of viscous properties of completion fluids. 2011. Geneva, Switzerland: ISO.
ISO 13503-4:2006, Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries—Completion Fluids and Materials—Part 4: Procedure for Measuring Stimulation and Gravel-Pack Fluid Leakoff under Static Conditions. 2006. Geneva, Switzerland: ISO. http://dx.doi.org/10.3403/30113738.
Mayerhofer, M. J., Economides, M. J., and Nolte, K. G. 1991. An Experimental and Fundamental Interpretation of Fracturing Filter-Cake Fluid Loss. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 6–9 October. SPE-22873-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22873-MS.
Mayerhofer, M. J., Staubmann, H. U., and Economides, M. J. 1993. Interpretation of Early- and Late-Time Filtration Phenomena of Crosslinked Polymer Cakes in Front of Long Cores. Presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 21–23 March. SPE-25489-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25489-MS.
McMechan, D. E. 1991. Fracturing Fluid Loss at High P: Laboratory Tests and Field Applications. Presented at the Low Permeability Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, 15–17 October. SPE-21873-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21873-MS.
Parris, M. D., MacKay, B. A., Rathke, J. W. et al. 2008. Influence of Pressure on Boron Cross-Linked Polymer Gels. Macromolecules 41 (21): 8181–8186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma801187q.
Penny, G. S. and Conway, M. W. 1989. Fluid Leakoff. In Recent Advances in Hydraulic Fracturing, first edition, ed. J.L. Gidley, Vol. 12, Chap. 8, 157–159. Richardson, Texas, USA: SPE Monograph Series, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Vitthal, S. and McGowen, J. M. 1996. Fracturing Fluid Leakoff under Dynamic Conditions Part 2: Effect of Shear Rate, Permeability, and Pressure. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 6–9 October. SPE-36493-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36493-MS.
Zeilinger, S. C., Mayerhofer, M. J., and Economides, M. J. 1991. A Comparison of the Fluid-Loss Properties of Borate-Zirconate-Crosslinked and Noncrosslinked Fracturing Fluids. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Lexington, Kentucky, USA, 22–25 October. SPE-23435-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23435-MS.