On the Liquid-Flow Analog To Evaluate Gas Wells Producing in Shales
- Chih Chen (Kappa Engineering) | Rajagopal Raghavan (Phillips Petroleum Co. (Ret.))
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 209 - 215
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 2.5.4 Multistage Fracturing
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- 624 since 2007
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Drawing on links to the analog considered by Al-Hussainy et al. (1966), we present a corresponding analog to correlate solutions for a fractured well producing at a constant pressure. A solution in terms of the similarity transformation for the pressure distribution in a linear reservoir filled with a real gas provides the basis. This solution is particularly suited to demonstrate that anomalous results will be obtained when long linear-flow trends typical of shales produced through a horizontal well consisting of multiple, infinite-conductivity fractures are evaluated in classical terms. The basis for the liquid-flow analog is re-examined by considering 2D numerical solutions for a fractured well producing a gas reservoir at a constant pressure. A method to correlate the nonlinear solutions with the corresponding liquid-flow solutions for fractured wells producing at a constant pressure during the infinite-acting period is provided. The phrase "analog" used here represents attempts to match values of both the well response and its derivative for a 2D system during transient flow. This correlation enables analysts to obtain estimates that are accurate in the manner of Al-Hussainy et al. (1966). An example illustrates the application of this recommendation for a horizontal well producing a shale reservoir through multiple hydraulic fractures.
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