Efficiency of Steam-Over-Solvent-Injection-in-Fractured-Reservoirs (SOS-FR) Method Considering Oil Recovery and Solvent Retrieval: Core-Scale Experimentation
- M. Almojtaba Mohammed (University of Alberta) | Tayfun Babadagli (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- September 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 310 - 322
- 2015.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Fractured reservoirs, Experimental analysis, Solvent and steam injection, Solvent retrieval, Heavy-oil recovery
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 209 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Sole injection of steam or solvent into heterogeneous reservoirs usually yields an inefficient recovery performance. The steam-over-solvent-injection-in-fractured-reservoirs (SOS-FR) method was suggested as a solution to improve the efficiency of heavy-oil/bitumen recovery from fractured carbonates and oil-sands reservoirs after cold production (Al-Bahlani and Babadagli 2008). The method consists of three phases: Phase 1, where steam is injected at low temperatures to heat the matrix and condition the oil for subsequent solvent injection; Phase 2, when solvent-injection dilutes matrix oil by diffusion and enhances gravity-drainage recovery rate; and Phase 3, when low-temperature (at approximately the boiling point of solvent) steam injection retrieves the solvent diffused into matrix.
Previous research was focused on the effectiveness of Phases 1 and 2 of the method (Al-Bahlani and Babadagli 2009a, b), and positive responses were reported at the field scale (Al-Bahlani and Babadagli 2010) with high ultimate recoveries. The efficiency of this process, however, is determined purely by the amount of solvent retrieved at the end of the process. This paper, therefore, focuses on Phase 3, which is performed mainly for solvent retrieval (additional oil is also produced during this phase). Twenty-two static core experiments were performed on water- and oil-wet sandstone and limestone. After saturating the rock samples with different heavy oils, they were immersed into different liquid solvents--hexane, heptane, decane, and diluent oil. Diluent oil used in this study is a distillate that was obtained from a heavy-oil-upgrading unit in Canada. Once the ultimate recovery was achieved by diffusion and gravity drainage (Phase 2), the samples were exposed to different temperatures of hot water (Phase 3) and the amount of solvent retrieved was measured through volumetric and weight measurements and refractometer readings. The retrieval of solvent diffused into matrix was caused mainly by two reasons: (1) evaporation of solvent at elevated temperature and (2) imbibition of hot water into rock (if oil-wet samples become more water-wet during Phase 2).
The amount of solvent retrieved through these processes was determined, and the efficiencies were analyzed for different parameters, including rock wettability, oil viscosity, solvent type, solvent-soaking period, rock type, boundary conditions, different combinations of steam/solvent cycle, and temperature applied.
|File Size||8 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Al-Bahlani, A. M. and Babadagli, T. 2008. Heavy-Oil Recovery in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs with Varying Wettability by Steam Solvent Co-Injection. Paper SPE 117626 presented at the SPE Int. Thermal Oper. and Heavy-Oil Symp., Calgary, AB, Canada, 20-23 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/117626-MS.
Al-Bahlani, A. M. and Babadagli, T. 2009a. Steam-Over-Solvent Injection in Fractured Reservoirs (SOS-FR) for Heavy-Oil Recovery: Experimental Analysis of the Mechanism. Paper SPE 123568 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference & Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 4-6 Aug. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/123568-MS.
Al Bahlani, A. M. M. and Babadagli, T. 2009b. Laboratory and Field Scale Analysis of Steam over Solvent Injection in Fractured Reservoirs (SOS FR) for Heavy Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4-7 October. SPE-124047-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124047-MS.
Al-Bahlani, A. M. and Babadagli, T. 2010. Efficiency Analysis of Steam-Over-Solvent Injection in Fractured Reservoirs (SOS-FR) Method for Heavy-Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 132458 presented at the Western Reg. Meet., Anaheim, California, USA, 27-29 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132458-MS.
Al-Gosayir, M., Babadagli, T. and Leung, J. 2013. Design of SOS-FR (Steam-Over-Solvent Injection in Fractured Reservoirs) Method for Heavy-Oil Recovery Using Hybrid Optimization Framework. Paper SPE 164306 presented at 18th Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference (MEOS), Manama, Bahrain, 10-13 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/164306-MS.
Coskuner, G., Naderi, K. and Babadagli, T. 2013. An Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology as a Follow Up to Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand. Paper SPE 165385 presented at the 2013 SPE Heavy Oil Conf., Calgary, AB, Canada, 11-13 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165385-MS.
Dehghan, A. A., Farzaneh, S. A., Kharrat, R., Ghazanfari, M. H. 2009. The Role of Pore Geometry and Connate Water on Miscible Displacement of Heavy Oil with Hydrocarbon Solvents in Strongly Water-Wet and Oil-Wet Media Using Five-Spot Micromodels. Paper PETSOC-2009-091 Presented at Canadian pinternational petroleum conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 16–18 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2009-091.
Joseph, D. D. 1990. Fluid Dynamics of Two Miscible Fluids with Diffusion and Gradient Stresses. Eur. J. Mech., B/Fluids 9 (6): 565-596. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a238416.pdf.
Korteweg, D. 1901. Sur la forme que prennent les équations du movement des fluids si l’on tient compte des forces capillaires causées par des variations de densité. Arch. Néerl. Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Series II, 6, 1–24.
Li, W., Mamora, D. D., and Li, Y. 2011a. Light- and Heavy-Solvent Impacts on Solvent-Aided-SAGD Process: A Low-Pressure Experimental Study. J Can Pet Technol 50 (4): 19-30. SPE-133277-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133277-PA.
Li, W., Mamora, D. D. and Li, Y. 2011b. Solvent-Type and -Ratio Impacts on Solvent-Aided SAGD Process. SPE Res Eval and Eng 14 (3): 320-331. SPE-130802-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130802-PA.
Maini, B., Ionescu, E. and Batycky, J. 1986. Miscible Displacement of Residual Oil – Effect of Wettability on Dispersion in Porous Media. J Can Pet Technol 25 (3): 36-41. PETSOC-86-03-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86-03-03.
Moreno-Arciniegas, L. and Babadagli, T. 2013. Optimal Application Conditions of Solvent Injection Into Oil Sands To Minimize the Effect of Asphaltene Deposition: An Experimental Investigation. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (4). SPE-165531-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165531-PA.
Naderi, K. and Babadagli, T. 2012. Experimental Analysis of Heavy Oil Recovery and CO2 Storage by Alternate Injection of Steam and CO2 in Deep Naturally Fractured Reservoir. Paper SPE-146738-MS presented at the 2012 Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada 12-14 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146738-MS.
Naderi, K., Babadagli, T. and Coskuner, G. 2013. Bitumen Recovery by the SOS-FR (Steam-Over-Solvent Injection in Fractured Reservoirs) Method: An Experimental Study on Grosmont Carbonates. Paper SPE-165530-MS submitted to the 2013 SPE Heavy Oil Conf., Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 11-13 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165530-MS.
Nasr, T. N., Beaulieu, G., Golbeck, H. et al. 2003. Novel Expending Solvent-SAGD Process ES-SAGD. J Can Pet Technol 42 (1): 13–16.
Pojman, J. A., Whitmore, C., Turco Liveri, M. L., et al. 2006. Evidence for the Existence of an Effective Interfacial Tension between Miscible Fluids: Isobutyric Acid-Water and 1-Butanol-Water in a Spinning-Drop Tensiometer. Langmuir 22 (6): 2569-2577. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16519456.
Rangriz-Shokri, A. and Babadagli, T. 2012a. Evaluation of Thermal/Solvent Applications with and without Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand (CHOPS). Paper SPE-158934-MS presented at the 2012 SPE Energy Conference, Developing Resources for Sustainability, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 11-13 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/158934-MS.
Rangriz-Shokri, A. and Babadagli, T. 2012b. An Approach to Model CHOPS (Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sands) and Post-CHOPS Applications. Paper SPE-159437-MS presented at the 2012 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 8-10 October, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 8-10 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/159437-MS.
Rezaei, N., Mohammadzadeh, O., Parsaei, R. and Chatzis, I. 2010. The Effect of Reservoir Wettability on the Production Characteristics of the VAPEX Process. Paper SPE-130096-MS, presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130096-MS.