Pelican Lake Field: First Successful Application of Polymer Flooding In a Heavy-Oil Reservoir
- Eric Delamaide (IFP Technologies (Canada) Inc.) | Alain Zaitoun (Poweltec) | Gérard Renard (IFP Energies Nouvelles) | René Tabary (IFP Energies Nouvelles)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 340 - 354
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex)
- heavy oil, field application, pilot test, polymer flooding
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 1,058 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The Pelican Lake heavy-oil field in northern Alberta (Canada) has had a remarkable history since its discovery in the early 1970s. Initial production by use of vertical wells was poor because of the thin (less than 5 m) reservoir formation and high oil viscosity (800–80,000-plus cp). The field began to reach its full potential with the introduction of horizontal drilling and was one of the first fields worldwide to be developed with horizontal wells. However, with primary recovery at less than 10% and 6.4 billion bbl of oil in place (OIP), the prize for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large. Initially, polymer flooding had not been considered as a viable EOR technology for Pelican Lake because of the high viscosity of the oil, until the idea came of combining it with horizontal wells.A first - unsuccessful - pilot was implemented in 1997, but the lessons drawn from that failure were learned and a second pilot was met with success in 2006. The response to polymer injection in this pilot was excellent, with oil rate increasing from 43 BOPD to more than 700 BOPD and remaining high for more than 6 years; the water cut has generally remained at less than 60%. Incremental recovery over primary production is variable but can reach as high as 25% of oil originally in place (OOIP) in places. This paper presents the history of the field and then focuses on the polymer-flooding aspects. It describes the preparation and results of the two polymer-flood pilots, as well as the extension of the flood to the rest of the field (currently in progress). Polymer flooding has generally been applied in light- or medium- gravity oil, and even currently, standard industry-screening criteria limit its use to viscosities up to 150 cp only. Pelican Lake is the first successful application of polymer flooding in much higher-viscosity oil (more than 1,200 cp), and as such, it opens a new avenue for the development of heavy-oil resources that are not accessible by thermal methods.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Beliveau, D. 2009. Waterflooding Viscous Oil Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (5): 689–701. SPE-113132-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113132-PA.
Bezaire, G.E. and Markiw, I.A. 1979. Esso Resources Horizontal Hole Project at Cold Lake. Presented at the Annual Technical Meeting, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 8–11 May. PETSOC-79-30-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/79-30-10.
Butler, R. 1998. Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: GravDrain Inc.
Cenovus. 2010. Performance Review of In Situ Oil Sands Schemes Approval 9403F & 9404G. Technical Report, Cenovus, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (March 2010).
Cenovus. 2011. Performance Review of In Situ Oil Sands Scheme Approval 9404K. Technical Report, Cenovus, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (March 2011).
Cenovus. 2012. Performance Review of In Situ Oil Sands Scheme Approval 9404P. Technical Report, Cenovus, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (March 2012).
Chauveteau, G., Combe, J., and Han, D. 1988. Preparation of Two Polymer Pilot Tests in Daqing Oil Field. Presented at International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Tianjin, China, 1–4 November. SPE-17632-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17632-MS.
CNRL (Canadian Natural Resources Limited). 2004. Application for Approval of a Scheme for Enhanced Recovery by Polymer and Water Injection–Horse Tail Lake Pilot Project. Application No. 1354060 to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Alberta, Canada.
CNRL (Canadian Natural Resources Limited). 2006. Canadian Natural Resources In-Situ Performance Presentation. Retrieved from ERCB website.
CNRL (Canadian Natural Resources Limited). 2007. Brintnell Field Horsetail Polymer Flood Pilot Project–2006 Annual Report. Technical Report, Innovative Energy Technologies Program, Alberta Department of Energy, Alberta, Canada (June 2006).
CNRL (Canadian Natural Resources Limited). 2010. Brintnell Field Horsetail Polymer Flood Pilot Project–Final Report. Technical Report, Innovative Energy Technologies Program, Alberta Department of Energy, Alberta, Canada (June 2010).
CNRL (Canadian Natural Resources Limited). 2012a. Pelican Lake Crude Oil. CNRL, http://www.cnrl.com/operations/north-america/north-american-crude-oil-and-ngls/pelican-lake-crude-oil.html.
CNRL (Canadian Natural Resources Limited). 2012b. 2012 Brintnell Area–Annual ERCB Performance Presentation. Technical Report, Innovative Energy Technologies Program, Alberta Department of Energy, Alberta, Canada (March 2012).
Corlay, P., Lemouzy, P., Eschard, R., et al. 1992. Fully Integrated Reservoir Study and Numerical Forecast Simulations of Two Polymer Pilots in Daqing Oil Field. Presented at the International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Beijing, China, 24–27 March. SPE-22364-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22364-MS.
Delamaide, E., Corlay, P., and Demin, W. 1994. Daqing Oil Field: The Success of Two Pilots Initiates First Extension of Polymer Injection in a Giant Oil Field. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 17–20 April. SPE-27819-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27819-MS.
EnCana. 2008. Amendment to Application 1562741–Application for Amendment of Approval 9404 Enhanced Recovery Scheme in Brintnell Area (Athabasca Oil Sands Area). Letter to Energy Resources Conservation Board, Alberta, Canada.
EnCana. 2002. Annual Report. Technical Report, EnCana, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (February 2002).
EnCana. 2008. Application for Experimental EOR Scheme Using an Emulsion-based Waterflood. Application No. 1595224 to Energy Resources Conservation Board, Alberta, Canada.
EnCana. 2003. EnCana Corporation 2003 Annual Report to Shareholders: What Matters. Technical Report, EnCana, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (February 2004).
EnCana. 2004. In Situ Oil Sands Scheme Approval 9404 Brintnell Sector Enhanced Recovery of Crude Bitumen by Water Injection Semi-Annual Presentation Performance Presentation. Retrieved from ERCB website.
EnCana. 2009. Performance Review of In Situ Oil Sands Scheme Approval 9403E and 9404E. Technical Report, EnCana, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (April 2008).
Fontaine, T., Hayes, L., and Reese, G. 1993. Development of Pelican Lake Area Using Horizontal Well Technologies. J Can Pet Technol 32 (9): 44–49. PETSOC-93-09-06. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93-09-06.
Fossey, J.P., Morgan, R.J., and Hayes, L.A. 1997. Development of the Pelican Lake Area: Reservoir Considerations and Horizontal Technologies. J Can Pet Technol 36 (6): 53–56. PETSOC-97-06-05. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97-06-05.
Green, D. and Willhite, G. 1998. Enhanced Oil Recovery, Vol. 6. Richardson, Texas: Textbook Series, SPE.
Horizontal and Multilateral Wells: Increasing Production and Reducing Overall Drilling and Completion Costs. 1999. J Pet Technol 51 (7): 20–25.
IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole). 2006. Canadian Natural Resources Ltd. Brintnell Polymer Flooding Update February 2006. IFP, Reservoir Engineering Division, Paris, France (February 2006).
Jewett, R.L. and Schurz, G.F. 1970. Polymer Flooding–A Current Appraisal. J Pet Technol 22 (6): 675–684. SPE-2545-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2545-PA.
Joshi, S. 1991. Horizontal Well Technology. Tulsa, Oklahoma: PennWell Publishing Company.
Knight, B.L. and Rhudy, J.S. 1977. Recovery Of High-Viscosity Crudes By Polymer Flooding. J Can Pet Technol 16 (4): 46–56. PETSOC-77-04-07. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77-04-07.
Lake, L. 2010. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Richardson, Texas: SPE.
Maini, B. 1998. Is It Futile to Measure Relative Permeability For Heavy Oil Reservoirs? J Can Pet Technol 37 (4): 56–62. PETSOC-98-04-06. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98-04-06.
Manning, R., Pope, G.A., and Lake, L W. 1983. A Technical Survey of Polymer Flooding Projects. US DOE Contract No. DOE/ET/10327-19, Intercomp Resource Development and Engineering, Inc., Denver, Colorado (September 1983).
Miller, K. 2005. State of the Art of Western Canadian Heavy Oil Water Flood Technology. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 7–9 June. PETSOC-2005-251. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2005-251.
Miller, K., Nelson, L.A., and Almond, R.M. 2006. Should You Trust Your Heavy Oil Visosity Measurement? J Can Pet Technol 45 (4): 42–48. PETSOC-06-04-02. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/06-04-02.
Nejad, K.S., Berg, E.A., and Ringen, J.K. 2011. Effect of Oil Viscosity on Water/Oil Relative Permeability. Oral presentation given at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysis, Austin, Texas, 18–21 September.
NIPER. 2004. Heavy Oil Database, http://www.netl.doe.gov/kmd/cds/disk27/HeavyOil_db_2004_w_notes.xls.
Reiss, L.H. 1987. Production from Horizontal Wells After 5 Years. J Pet Technol 39 (11): 1411–1416. SPE-14338-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14338-PA.
Reiss, L.H., Jourdan, A.L., Giger, F.M., et al. 1984. Offshore and Onshore European Horizontal Wells. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, 30 April. OTC-4791-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/4791-MS.
Sandiford, B.B. 1964. Laboratory and Field Studies of Water Flood Using Polymer Solutions to Increase Oil Recoveries. J Pet Technol 16 (8): 917–922. SPE-844-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/844-PA.
Selby, R., Alikhan, A.A., and Farouq Ali, S.M. 1989. Potential of Non-thermal Methods for Heavy Oil Recovery. J Can Pet Technol 28 (4): 45–59. PETSOC-89-04-02. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89-04-02.
Sharp, D.A. 1989. Winter Reservoir–Horizontal Well Project. Presented at the Technical Meeting/Petroleum Conference of The South Saskatchewan Section, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, 25–27 September. PETSOC-SS-89-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/SS-89-29.
Sharp, D.A., Coffin, P., Giannesini, J., et al. 1991. The Application of Horizontal Production Systems. Presented at the 13th World Petroleum Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 20–25 October. WPC-24163.
Sheng, J. 2011. Modern Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery: Theory and Practice. Burlington, Massachusetts: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Smith, R.C., Hayes, L.A., and Wilkin, J.F. 1994. The Lateral Tie-Back System: the Ability to Drill and Case Multiple Laterals. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Dallas, Texas, 15–18 February. SPE-27436-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27436-MS.
Springer, S.J., Flach, P.D., Christie, D.S., et al. 1993. A Review of the First Five Hundred Horitontal Wells in Western Canada. Presented at the Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 9–12 May. PETSOC-93-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93-19.
Stramp, R. 1980. The Use of Horizontal Drainholes in the Empire ABO Unit. Presented at the SPE Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 21–24 September. SPE-9221-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9221-MS.
Tabary, R., Behot, J., and Zaitoun, A. 2005. Engineering Services for Brintnell Polymer Flood Pilot Project (CNRL, Canada)–Progress Report 1: Laboratory Study. Technical Report, Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP), Paris, France (2005).
Taber, J.J. and Seright, R.S. 1992. Horizontal Injection and Production Wells for EOR or Waterflooding. Presented at Permien Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, Midland, Texas, 18–20 March. SPE-23952-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23952-MS.
Taber, J.J., Martin, F.D., and Seright, R.S. 1997. EOR Screening Criteria Revisited–Part 1: Introduction to Screening Criteria and Enhanced Recovery Field Projects. SPE Res Eng 12 (3): 189–198. SPE-35385-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35385-PA.
Thornton, B., Hassan, D., and Eubank, J. 1996. Horizontal Well Cyclic Combustion, Wabasca Air Injection Pilot. J Can Pet Technol 35 (9). PETSOC-96-09-01. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96-09-01.
Wang, D., Hao, Y., Delamaide, E., et al. 1993. Results of Two Polymer Flooding Pilots in the Central Area of Daqing Oil Field. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 3–6 October. SPE-26401-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26401-MS.
Wang, J., Dong, M., and Asghari, K. 2006. Effect of Oil Viscosity on Heavy-Oil/Water Relative Permeability Curves. Presented at SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22–26 April. SPE-99763-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99763-MS.
Wightman, D. and Pemberton, S. 1997. The Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) McMurray Formation: An Overview of the Fort McMurray Area, Northeastern, Alberta. In Petroleum Geology of the Cretaceous Mannville Group, Western Canada–CSPG Memoir 18, ed. S. Pemberton and D. James, 312–344. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists.
Zaitoun, A., and Kohler, N. 1987. The Role of Adsorption in Polymer Propagation Through Reservoir Rocks. Presented at SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, San Antonio, Texas, 4–6 February. SPE-16274-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16274-MS.
Zaitoun, A., Tabary, R., Fossey, J., et al. 1998. Implementing a Heavy-Oil Horizontal-Well Polymer Flood in Western Canada. Oral presentation given at the Seventh UNITAR Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, Beijing, China, 27–30 October.