A Review of Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects Between Oilwell-Cement Additives
- Johann Plank (Technische Universität München) | Constantin Tiemeyer (Technische Universität München) | Daniel Bülichen (Technische Universität München) | Nils Recalde Lummer (Technische Universität München)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- December 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 398 - 404
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.14.3 Cement Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 2.2.3 Fluid Loss Control, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 5.4.10 Microbial Methods
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Oilwell-cement slurries commonly incorporate several admixtures such asretarder, dispersant, fluid-loss additive (FLA), antifreewater agent, anddefoamer. Between them, additive/additive interactions may occur that canresult in incompatibilities and reduced performances (the most frequent case)or, oppositely, in improved effectiveness. Here, an overview of somesynergistic and antagonistic effects between selected cement additives ispresented. Four combinations of additives were tested and studied. First, theinteraction between 2-Acrylamido-tertiary-butyl sulfonicacid-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide (CaATBS-co-NNDMA) FLA and anNaATBS-co-itaconic acid retarder as well as welan gum, an anionicbiopolymer applied as an antifree-water additive, was investigated. It wasfound that the retarder, which possesses a particularly high-anionic charge,reduces the effectiveness of the CaATBS-co-NNDMA FLA by decreasing itsamount adsorbed on cement. Similarly, the anionic biopolymer can alsonegatively affect the effectiveness of the FLA through competitive adsorption,in which the biopolymer hinders the sufficient adsorption of the FLA on cement.The incorporation of stronger anchor groups (e.g., dicarboxylates orphosphonates) into the CaATBS-co-NNDMA FLA enhances its affinity for thesurface of cement and thus renders it more robust against the negative impactfrom other admixtures. Second, the compatibility between an Na+lignosulfonate (Na-LS) retarder and the CaATBS-co-NNDMA FLA wasinvestigated. Here, surprisingly, a dual synergistic effect was found. Na-LSimproves the fluid-loss performance of CaATBS-co-NNDMA, whereas thelatter greatly enhances the retarding effectiveness of lignosulfonate. Theexperiments demonstrate exceptionally high compatibility of both admixtures.The positive effect is based on coprecipitation of both polymers, whichenhances FLA adsorption on cement. At the same time, because of the thickadsorbed polymer layer, the dissolution of the clinker phases is hindered,resulting in the retardation of cement hydration. Finally, it was found thathydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and sulfonated formaldehyde polycondensate-baseddispersants - such as poly melamine sulfonate (PMS) or acetone formaldehydesulfite (AFS) - act synergistically; thus, the fluid-loss control provided byHEC is considerably improved. Dynamic light-scattering measurements revealedthat, in the presence of those dispersants, the association of HEC moleculesinto large hydrocolloidal assemblies was greatly enhanced. Obviously, theincreased ionic strength resulting from the polycondensate dispersants rendersthe nonionic HEC molecules less water-soluble and initiates their aggregationat an earlier stage. The larger hydrocolloidal polymer associates can plugfilter-cake pores more effectively, thus reducing cement fluid loss. The studysuggests that multiple additive/additive interactions can occur in oilwellcement. Understanding the underlying mechanisms can help both to avoid unwantedincompatibilities and to develop mitigation strategies.
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