Scale-Inhibitor Consumption in Long-Term Static Barium Sulfate Inhibition Efficiency Tests
- Scott S. Shaw (Heriot-Watt University) | Ken S. Sorbie (Heriot-Watt University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 376 - 386
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 328 since 2007
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In typical bulk barite inhibition-efficiency (IE) experiments testing scaleinhibitors (SIs), the IE is determined by comparing the concentrations of thebarium ion in the mix to that in an uninhibited "blank" solution. That is,[Ba2+] vs. time is monitored for both a blank and an inhibitedsolution. The fate of the SI itself over this test time period is rarelymonitored, although this can give some important insights into the inhibitionmechanism. This paper presents a series of long-term (up to 96 hours) bariumsulfate static IE experiments in which both the supernatant SI concentration,[SI], and [Ba2+] are assayed at multiple sampling times afterinitial mixing of sea water (SW) and formation-water (FW) brines. In standardIE tests to determine SI minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC), sampling isnormally carried out at 2 hours and 22 hours only. The long-term IE experimentsdescribed in this paper involve up to eleven sampling times, typically att = 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 22, 48, 72, and 96 hours after mixing.
The aim of this type of experiment is to determine the fate of the SI overtime and to determine whether the IE and percentage of SI (%SI) in solution vs.time profiles correlate with each other. Clearly, SI removed from solution isconsumed into the forming barium sulfate lattice in the barite precipitate. IEand solution SI often continue to decline beyond 22 hours, up to 96 hours afterthe mixing stage. In these experiments, the SI concentration is set at apre-2-hour MIC threshold concentration, such that the IE and %SI consumptionprofiles will both decline sufficiently over time, possibly even as early asone-half hour after mixing. The SI consumption profiles obtained testing anextensive range of phosphonate and polymeric SIs are compared and discussed.Normally, a phosphorus-containing SI is selected for evaluation to facilitateassay of SI by means of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. However,some novel results are also presented in which selected polymeric SIs wereassayed by non-ICP analytical techniques. We interpret this extensive series ofSI lattice-consumption experiments in terms of the mechanisms of bariteinhibition and Type 1/Type 2 SI classifications presented in previous papers(Shaw et al. 2012a, b). The relevance and practical application of thesefindings are also discussed.
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