On the Shear Degradation of Lost-Circulation Materials
- Pietro Valsecchi (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- September 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 323 - 328
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6.1 Drilling Operation Management, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc)
- LCM, shear degradation, lost circulation materials, fluid loss prevention
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 620 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Lost-circulation materials (LCMs) are widely used to mitigate fluid loss when drilling permeable zones. Their effectiveness, however, generally declines with circulation time, and this decline is linked to the reduction in the average size of the solids components, or "shear degradation." In this paper, dimensional analysis and first-principle physics are used to frame those mechanisms into a scientific definition that directly connects the progressive LCM size reduction to operational parameters such as the densities of particles and suspending fluid, the size of particles, and the fluid viscosity. The introduction of large-sized materials in the drilling-mud circulation system has become a common practice during the past few decades for the mitigation of lost circulation while drilling in permeable intervals. Solids with an average diameter larger than 100 lm are carried with the drilling mud and, when fractures occur, they deposit in the fractures or at the opening of the fractures, successfully blocking the discharge of fluid out of the wellbore. The effectiveness of such material was observed, however, to decline over time as the drilling mud circulates through the mud pumps, the drillstring, the bit nozzles, the wellbore annulus, and the mud recycling system. The decline over time in the effectiveness of the so-called LCMs and loss-prevention materials (LPMs) during drilling is widely linked to the degradation of the LCM/LPM components that have an average size that drops with circulation time. A large amount of literature in the petroleum industry is dedicated to the investigation of the issue, and numerous experimental studies have attempted to quantify the LCM degradation by reproducing the root phenomena in the laboratory. The concept of "shear degradation" has thus become a synonym for such studies, and it is widely used for the selection of materials to be used in drilling operations. In the present paper, a harder look is taken on the very concept of "shear degradation" and on its effectiveness in capturing the progressive size reduction of LCM during circulation. By use of dimensional analysis, the tendency of a material to degrade can be determined in advance, whereby the density of the particles and suspending fluid, the size of particles, and the fluid viscosity are examined as the governing parameters. Understanding the underlying physics enables the selection of a more-shear-resistant engineered- particle drilling fluid, regardless of its application.
|File Size||355 KB||Number of Pages||6|
Alberty, M.W. and McLean, M.R. 2004. A Physical Model for Stress Cages. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference, Houston, Texas, 26–29 September. SPE-90493-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90493-MS.
Batchelor, G. K. 1953. The Theory of Homogeneous Turbulence. Cambridge Science Classics: Cambridge University Press.
Brady, J.F., Khair, A.S., and Swaroop, M. 2006. On the Bulk Viscosity of Suspensions. J. Fluid Mechanics 554: 109–123.
Byck, H.T. 1940. The Effect of Formation Permeability on the Plastering Behavior of Mud Fluids. In Drilling and Production Practices, 40–44.
Carman, P.C. 1937. Fluid Flow Through Granular Beds, Vol. 15, 150–156. London: Institution of Chemical Engineers.
Dodge, D.G. and Metzner, A.B. 1959. Turbulent Flow of Non-Newtonian Systems. AlChE J. 5: 189.
Dupriest, F.E., Smith, M.V., Zeilinger, S.C. et al. 2008. Method to Eliminate Lost Returns and Build Integrity Continuously With High-Filtration-Rate Fluid. Presented at the IADC/SPE 112656, IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Orlando, Florida, 4–6 March. SPE-112656-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/112656-MS.
Einstein, A. 1906. Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen. Ann. Phys. 19: 289–306.
Fuh, G.F., Morita, N., Boyd, P.A. et al. 1992. A New Approach to Preventing Lost Circulation While Drilling. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference, Washington, DC, 4–7 Ocober. SPE-24599-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24599-MS.
Gatlin, C. and Nemir, E. 1961. Some Effects of Size Distribution on Particle Bridging in Lost Circulation and Filtration Tests. SPE-1652-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1652-G.
Gillies, R.G., Schaan, J., Sumner, R.J. et al. 2000. Deposition Velocities for Newtonian Slurries in Turbulent Flow. Canadian J. Chemical Eng. 78 (4): 704–708.
Hanks, R.W. and Pratt, D.R. 1967. On the Flow of Bingham Plastic Slurries in Pipes and Between Parallel Plates. SPE J. 240: 342–346. SPE-1682-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1682-PA.
Hayatdavoudi, A. 1974. An Inquiry of a Modern Lost-Circulation Material. SPE-5185. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5185.
Howard, G.C. and Scott, P.P. 1951. An Analysis and the Control of Lost Circulation. J Pet Technol 3 (6) 171–182. SPE-951171-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/951171-G.
Kolmogorov, A.N. 1941. The Local Structure of Turbulence in Incompressible Viscous Fluid for Very Large Reynolds Numbers. Proc., the USSR Academy of Science 30: 199–303.
Kozny, J. 1927. Ueber kapillare Leitung des Wassers im Boden. Sitzungsber Akademische Wissenschaft, Wien 136 (2a): 271–306.
Kumar, A., Chellappah, K., Aston, M. et al. 2013. Quality Control of Particle Size Distribution. Presented at the SPE European Fomation Damage Conference and Exhibition, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 5–7 June. SPE-165150-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165150-MS.
Loeppke, G.E., Glowka, D.A., and Wright, E.K. 1990. Design and Evaluation of Lost-Circulation Materials for Severe Environments. J Pet Technol 42 (3) 328–337. SPE-18022-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18022-PA.
Nayberg, T.M. 1987. Laboratory Study of Lost Circulation Materials for Use in Both Oil-Based and Water-Based Drilling Muds. SPE Drill Eng 2 (3): 229–236. SPE-14723-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14723-PA.
Schlichting, H. 1955. Boundary Layer Theory. The University of Michigan: McGraw-Hill.
Scott, P.D., Beardmore, D.H., Wade, Z.D. et al. 2012. Size Degradation of Granular Lost-Circulation Materials. Presented at the 2012 IADC/SPE Drilling conference and Exhibition, San Diego, California, 6–8 March. IADC/SPE-151227-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/151227-MS.
White, R.J. 1956. Lost-Circulation Materials and Their Evaluation. In Drilling and Production Practice, 352–359. New York, New York, 1 January.