Techniques for Mapping and Diagnosing EOR Processes
- A.J. Leighton (Leighton Consulting Services) | J.R. Wayland (Sandia Natl. Laboratories)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- February 1987
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 129 - 136
- 1987. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.6.3 Pressure Transient Testing, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 3.3 Well & Reservoir Surveillance and Monitoring, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.6.5 Tracers, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation
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Distinguished Author Series articles are general, descriptiverepresentations that summarize the state of the art in an area of technology bydescribing recent developments for readers who are not specialists in thetopics discussed. Written by individuals recognized as experts in the area,these articles provide key references to more definitive work and presentspecific details only to illustrate the technology. Purpose: to informthe general readership of recent advances in various areas of petroleumengineering.
Summary. Diagnostic methods for tracking EOR processes have evolvedconsiderably during recent years. Because each technique can provide differentinformation about specific EOR processes, selection of the best technique for aproblem must be done on a case-by-case basis. This paper describes techniquesavailable for evaluating and diagnosing EOR processes and problems and presentsselection criteria for each. Two examples are given to illustrate how a suiteof techniques can be chosen.
The need for controlled application of- EOR processes has placed a premiumon knowledge of the development of an EOR process in the reservoir. Thepetroleum engineer often needs to known, what diagnostic techniques areavailable for tracking the process. In the beginning, oil recovery methods wererudimentary. and measurements of their effectiveness were simple andqualitative. As processes have become more refined, new techniques formeasurement and analysis have come along for evaluating processes anddiagnosing problems. This paper is intended to provide an overview that mayfocus the engineer's attention oil field management and development.
Success of an EOR project depends on the two basic economic factors: revenueand cost. To a large extent, the engineering expressions of these measures areoil recovery and total fluid throughput. Oil recovery is determined largely bythe area, or volume, swept in the process. We refer to the procedure fordetermining the shape and volume of the affected zone at different times as"mapping." The distribution of injected fluids determines their conductivityand consequent flow rates. Excessive rates increase bypassing and total fluidthroughput, thus increasing, project cost. We refer to procedures to determinetotal flow rates and their directions as "movement." The engineering expressionof the flow conditions is through input/output ratios, such as the steam/oilratio (see Fig. 1).
There is, of course, an overlap between mapping and movement measurements;we make the distinction to help clarify the intended application. More preciseknowledge of these elements can guide well placements, changes ininjection/production schedules, and other measures to improve recoveryefficiency and to reduce bypassing, channeling, and other detrimental fluidmovements.
Several criteria can be used to select various techniques from thoseavailable to the engineer. Looking at their strengths and weaknesses will aidin selecting the best techniques for the process and reservoir underconsideration. Generally, the newer, signal-involved techniques appear strongcontenders for thermal processes, while conventional techniques may be theprincipal choices for nonthermal cases.
Each technique is at a different stage of evolution, testing, andapplication. We briefly describe each technique and indicate the bestapplications and the limitations of each. Then we outline a scheme for using,two or more techniques in combination for cross, correlation and improveddefinition. Examples of specific applications are given.
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