Minimizing Environmental and Economic Risks with a Proppant-Sized Solid-Scale-Inhibitor Additive in the Bakken Formation
- Stephen Szymczak (Baker Hughes) | Dong Shen (Baker Hughes) | Rocky Higgins (Baker Hughes) | D.V. Satya Gupta (Baker Hughes)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 14 - 20
- 2013.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.4 Scale, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 4.6 Natural Gas
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 415 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Within the past decade, hydraulic fracturing has proved to enhance the efficiency and economics of recovering oil and natural gas from shale formations. In a previous paper (SPE-134414-MS, Gupta et al. 2010), a summary of treatment results of placing a solid scale inhibitor into formations by means of the fracturing process for more than 5 years and in more than 1,500 wells was discussed fully; however, the practice of hydraulic fracturing has come under scrutiny because of concerns about environmental impact, health, and safety. Therefore, a novel, biodegradable scale inhibitor with an outstanding ecotoxicity profile for fresh water incorporated into a solid matrix was recently developed and deployed in North Dakota. For one operator with 150 Bakken producing wells in this area, severe carbonate-mineral scaling in the pump and production tubing has been observed in 22 of these producing wells, which led to well failure (Cenegy et al. 2011), whereas the results from more than 290 Bakken wells now fractured with the new solid-inhibitor additives indicate no reported scale failures to date. This paper provides a detailed description of the first deployment of this environmentally preferred proppant-sized solid-scale-inhibitor additive under severe scaling conditions in the field. In addition, an analytical method developed to track the residual of this additive in the produced fluid containing polysaccharide contaminants is also discussed.
|File Size||299 KB||Number of Pages||7|
API RP 60, Recommended Practices for Testing High Strength Proppants Usedin Hydraulic Fracturing Operations, second edition. 1995. Washington, DC:API.
Berry, S.L., Smith, K., Cutler, J.L., and Kalfayan, L.J. 2009. Improved OilRecovery From Combining Well Stimulation With Novel Surfactant Technologies.Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans,Louisiana, 4-7 October. SPE-124215-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124215-MS.
Bourne, H., Knapstad, B., Nistad, T. et al. 1998. A Novel Scale InhibitorDelivery System for Horizontal and Problem Wells. Presented at the Advances inSolving Oilfield Scaling Conference, IBC Technical Services, Aberdeen, UK,January 1998.
Bourne, H.M., Heath, S.M., McKay, S., Fraser, J., Stott, L., and Müller, S.2000. Effective Treatment of Subsea Wells with a Solid Scale Inhibitor System.Presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Scale,Aberdeen, UK, 26-27 January. SPE-60207-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/60207-MS.
Brannon, H.D., Daulton, D.J., Post, M.A., Hudson, H.G., and Jordan, A.K.2012. The Quest to Exclusive Use of Environmentally Responsible FracturingProducts and Systems. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing TechnologyConference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6-8 February. SPE-152068-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152068-MS.
Brown, J.M., Shen, D., Gupta, D.V.S., Taylor, G., and Self, R.W. 2011.Laboratory and Field Studies of Long-Term Release Rates for a Solid Scale Inhibitor. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry,The Woodlands, Texas, 11-13 April. SPE-140177-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140177-MS.
Cenegy, L.M., McAfee, C.A., and Kalfayan, L.J. 2011. Field Study ofthe Physical and Chemical Factors Affecting Downhole Scale Deposition in theNorth Dakota Bakken Formation. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 11-13 April. SPE-140977-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140977-MS.
Frenier, W.W. and Ziauddin, M. 2008. Formation, Removal and Inhibition of Inorganic Scale in the Oilfield Environment. Richardson, TX: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Graham, G.M., Stalker, R., and McIntosh, R. 2003. The Impact of DissolvedIron on the Performance of Scale inhibitors Under Carbonate Scaling Conditions.Presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 5-7 February. SPE-80254-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80254-MS.
Gupta, D.V.S., Brown, J.M., and Szymczak, S. 2008. Multiyear Scale Inhibition From a Solid Inhibitor Applied During Stimulation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21-24 September.SPE-115655-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115655-MS.
Gupta, D.V.S., Brown, J.M., and Szymczak, S. 2010. A 5-Year Survey of Applications and Results of Placing Solid Chemical Inhibitors in the Formation via Hydraulic Fracturing. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22 September. SPE-134414-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/134414-MS.
Holt, S., Sanders, J., Rodrigues, K., and Vanderhoof, M. 2009. Biodegradable Alternatives for Scale Control in Oilfield Applications. Presented at the SPEInternational Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 20-22April. SPE-121723-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121723-MS.
Houston, N., Blauch, M., Weaver III, D., Miller, D.S., and O'Hara, D. 2009.Fracture-Stimulation in the Marcellus Shale-Lessons Learned in Fluid Selection and Execution. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Charleston, West Virginia, 23-25 September. SPE-125987-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125987-MS.
Inches, C.E., El Doueiri, K., and Sorbie, K.S. 2006. Green Inhibitors:Mechanisms in the Control of Barium Sulfate Scale. Presented at the NACE International CORROSION 2006, San Diego, California, 12-16 March.NACE-06485.
Kohler, N., Bazin, B., Zaitoun, A., and Johnson, T. 2004. Green Inhibitors for Squeeze Treatments: A Promising Alternative. Presented at the NACE International CORROSION 2004, New Orleans, Louisiana, 28 March-1 April.NACE-04537.
Kohler, N., Ropital, F., Courbin, G., and Estievenart, C. 2002.Polyaspartates: Biodegradable Alternates to Polyacrylates or Noteworthy Multifunctional Inhibitors. Presented at NACE International CORROSION 2002,Denver, Colorado, 7-11 April. NACE-02411.
Lopez, T.H., Yuan, M., Williamson, D.A., and Przybylinski, J.L. 2005.Comparing efficacy of scale inhibitors for inhibition of zinc sulfide and leadsulfide scales. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Scale,Aberdeen, UK, 11-12 May. SPE-95097-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95097-MS.
Norris, M., Perez, D., Bourne, H.M., and Heath, S.M. 2001. Maintaining Fracture Performance Through Active Scale Control. Presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, UK, 30-31 January.SPE-68300-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/68300-MS.
Shen, D., Shcolnik, D., Perkins, R., Taylor, G., and Brown, J.M. 2011.Evaluation of Scale Inhibitors in Marcellus Waters Containing High Levels of Dissolved Iron. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 11-13 April. SPE-141145-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141145-MS.
Smith, T., Szymczak, S., Gupta, D.V.S., and Brown, J.M. 2009. Solid Paraffin Inhibitor Pumped in a Hydraulic Fracture Provides Long Term Paraffin Inhibitionin Permian Basin Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4-7 October. SPE-124868-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124868-MS.
Szymczak, S., Brown, J.M., Noe, S., and Gallup, G. 2006. Long-Term Scale Prevention With the Placement of Solid Inhibitor in the Formation via Hydraulic Fracturing. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,San Antonio, Texas, 24-27 September. SPE-102720-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102702-MS.