Experimental Investigation of Bitumen Recovery From Fractured Carbonates Using Hot Solvents
- Varun Pathak (University of Alberta) | Tayfun Babadagli (University of Alberta) | Neil Edmunds (Laricina Energy)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- June 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 289 - 295
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 4.3.3 Aspaltenes
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 444 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
With the decrease in conventional oil and gas reserves throughout the world and an ever-increasing demand for fossil-fuel-based energy and resulting high oil prices, focus has been shifting to unconventional and heavy oil and bitumen. Grosmont carbonates in northern Alberta have been estimated to contain at least 300 billion bbl of heavy oil or bitumen. However, recovering this oil is extremely difficult because of the complexity associated with carbonate reservoirs in general (e.g., the Grosmont unit is known to possess a triple-porosity system of matrix, fractures, and vugs, on the basis of core studies). The second problem is the fluid itself, which is highly viscous bitumen that is immobile at reservoir conditions. To extract this bitumen from heterogeneous carbonate rock, both heat and dilution using solvents may be needed. This paper reports the results and analysis of hot-solvent experiments conducted on original Grosmont carbonate cores. Three experiments were conducted using propane and one using butane as solvent. After heating the entire system containing the core sample, solvent gas was injected. The rock was allowed to soak in the hot solvent for a long time. The experimental temperature and pressure were decided on the basis of the results of our earlier work that suggested they be slightly above the saturation line of the particular solvent. An attempt was made to keep the conditions close to the saturation conditions of the solvent being used to maximize the dilution and, hence, the recovery. The oil produced was analyzed for viscosity and asphaltene content. The results in terms of recovery, the degree of dilution, and upgrading achieved suggested that butane was a better solvent for this bitumen. Finally, the optimum conditions for operation of the hot-solvent process were verified for Grosmont carbonates.
|File Size||790 KB||Number of Pages||7|
Al Bahlani, A.M.M. and Babadagli, T. 2009. Laboratory and FieldScale Analysis of Steam Over Solvent Injection in Fractured Reservoirs (SOS FR)for Heavy Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, New Orleans, 4-7 October. SPE-124047-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124047-MS.
Al-Bahlani, A.-M. and Babadagli, T. 2011a. Field scaleapplicability and efficiency analysis of Steam-Over-Solvent Injection inFractured Reservoirs (SOS-FR) method for heavy oil recovery. J. Pet. Sci.Eng. 78 (2): 338-346. http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2011.07.001.
Al-Bahlani, A.-M. and Babadagli, T. 2011b. Steam-over-SolventInjection in Fractured Reservoirs (SOS-FR) Technique as a New Approach forHeavy-Oil and Bitumen Recovery: An Overview of the Method. Energy Fuels 25 (10): 4528-4539. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef200809z.
Allen, J.C., Gillespie, R.E., and Burnett, D.B. 1984.Superheated solvent method for recovering viscous petroleum US Patent No.4,450,913.
Al-Murayri, M., Harding, T.G., and Maini, B.B. 2011.Impact of Noncondensable Gas on Performance of Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage.J Can Pet Technol 50 (7): 46-54. SPE-148943-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148943-PA.
Al-Shizawi, A., Denby, P., and Marsden, G. 1997.Heat-Front Monitoring in the Qarn Alam Thermal GOGD Pilot. Presented at theMiddle East Oil Show and Conference, Bahrain, 15-18 March. SPE-37781-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37781-MS.
Babadagli, T. and Al-Bemani, A. 2007. Investigations on matrixrecovery during steam injection into heavy-oil containing carbonate rocks.J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 58 (1-2): 259-274. http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2007.01.003.
Butler, R.M. and Mokrys, I.J. 1991. A New Process (VAPEX) for RecoveringHeavy Oils Using Hot Water and Hydrocarbon Vapour. J Can Pet Technol 30 (1): 97-106.
Cronquist, C. 1978. Carbon Dioxide Dynamic Miscibility withLight Reservoir Oils. Proc., Fourth Annual U.S. DOE Symposium, Tulsa,28-30 August.
Das, S. 2002. VAPEX - A Unique Canadian Technology (17th WorldPetroleum Congress Preview). J Can Pet Technol 41 (8):6-40. JCPT Paper No. 02-08-00. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/02-08-00.
Davletbaev, A., Kovaleva, L., and Babadagli, T. 2011.Mathematical modeling and field application of heavy oil recovery byRadio-Frequency Electromagnetic stimulation. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 78 (3-4): 646-653. http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2011.07.006.
Edmunds, N., Barrett, K., Solanki, S. et al. 2009. Prospectsfor Commercial Bitumen Recovery from the Grosmont Carbonate, Alberta. J CanPet Technol 48 (9): 26-32. PETSOC-09-09-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/09-09-26.
Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS). 2009. Hangingstone SAGDDemonstration Project. Application for Amendment of Approval 8788G forNon-Condensable Gas Injection. Submitted to the Energy Resources ConservationBoard, Calgary, Alberta (December 2009).
Jiang, Q., Yuan, J.-Y., Russel-Houston, J. et al. 2010.Evaluation of Recovery Technologies for the Grosmont Carbonate Reservoirs. JCan Pet Technol 49 (5): 56-64. SPE-137779-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137779-PA.
Kovaleva, L., Davletbaev, A., Babadagli, T. et al. 2010.Effects of Electrical and Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Heating on theMass-Transfer Process during Miscible Injection for Heavy-Oil Recovery†.Energy Fuels 25 (2): 482-486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef1009428.
Nakamura, S., Sarma, H.K., Umucu, T. et al. 1995. A CriticalEvaluation of a Steamflood Pilot in a Deep Heavy Carbonate Reservoir inIkiztepe Field, Turkey. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Dallas, 22-25 October. SPE-30727-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30727-MS.
Nenniger, J. and Nenniger, E. 2005. Method and apparatus forstimulating heavy oil production. US Patent No. 6,883,607 (B2).
Pathak, V., Babadagli, T., and Edmunds, N.R. 2010. HotSolvent Injection for Heavy Oil/Bitumen Recovery: An ExperimentalInvestigation. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources andInternational Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 19-21 October. SPE-137440-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137440-MS.
Pathak, V., Babadagli, T., and Edmunds, N.R. 2011. Heavyoil and bitumen recovery by hot solvent injection. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 78 (3-4): 637-645. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2011.08.002.
Pathak, V., Babadagli, T., and Edmunds, N. 2012.Mechanics of Heavy-Oil and Bitumen Recovery by Hot Solvent Injection. SPERes Eval & Eng 15 (2): 182--194. SPE-144546-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144546-PA.
Peterson, J.A., Riva, D., Edmunds, N.R. et al. 2010. TheApplication of Solvent-Additive SAGD Processes in Reservoirs With AssociatedBasal Water. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources andInternational Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 19-21 October. SPE-137833-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137833-MS.
Redford, D.A. and McKay, A.S. 1980. Hydrocarbon-Steam Processesfor Recovery of Bitumen from Oil Sands. Presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced OilRecovery Symposium, Tulsa, 20-23 April. SPE-8823-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8823-MS.
Rezaei, N. and Chatzis, I. 2007. Incorporation of Heat in theVAPEX Process: Warm VAPEX. Presented at the Canadian International PetroleumConference, Calgary, 12-14 June. PETSOC-2007-133-EA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2007-133-EA.
Shahin, G.T., Moosa, R., Kharusi, B. et al. 2006. The Physicsof Steam Injection in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs: Engineering DevelopmentOptions That Minimize Risk. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. SPE-102186-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102186-MS.
Solanki, S.C., Barrett, K., Riva, D. et al. 2011. The firstSC-SAGD Pilot in the Grosmont. Presented at the 2011 World Heavy Oil Congress,Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 14-17 March. Paper No. WHOC11-615.
Trivedi, J.J., Babadagli, T., Lavoie, R.G. et al. 2007. AcidGas Sequestration During Tertiary Oil Recovery: Optimal Injection Strategiesand Importance of Operational Parameters. J Can Pet Technol 46 (3): 60-67. PETSOC-07-03-06. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/07-03-06.
Wang, J. 2011. The impact of non-condensable gas (NCG)co-injection on a SAGD project - A case study of the JACOS Hangingstone fieldpilot test. Presented at the 2011 World Heavy Oil Congress, Edmonton, Alberta,Canada, 14-17 March. Paper No. WHOC11-564.
Zhao, L., Nasr, T.N., Huang, H. et al. 2005. Steam AlternatingSolvent Process: Lab Test and Simulation. J Can Pet Technol 44 (9): 37-43. PETSOC-05-09-04. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/05-09-04.