Determining Areal Permeability Distribution by Calculations
- W.D. Kruger (Humble Oil & Refining Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- July 1961
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 691 - 696
- 1961. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 4.1.4 Gas Processing, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics
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Methods for analyzing flooding or cycling projects by means of two-dimensional flow calculations are presented in the literature. The use of these methods allows the determination of optimum operating conditions for such projects and provides information on pattern efficiencies, relative flow rates, pressure distributions and floodout histories. The accuracy of such analyses depends on the basic reservoir data employed, especially the absolute permeability distribution in the reservoir; however, absolute permeability data normally are determined from well flow tests and/or core measurements and are so limited in quantity and quality that they do not adequately describe the reservoir flow properties.
A calculation procedure is presented for determining the areal permeability distribution in the reservoir. Use of the procedure allows verification of the basic reservoir data through the matching of past reservoir conditions, thereby providing proper data for reliable predictions of future operations. The calculation procedure is a numerical technique based on a mathematical model of the reservoir and is designed for solution by means of an electronic digital computer.
Results from field application of this procedure are presented. Permeability distributions from measured data are compared to those calculated to indicate the need for the analysis. Comparisons of field-measured and calculated pressure distributions are given to establish the validity of the calculation procedure.
The conclusions of this paper are (1) use of the calculation provides data that allow a match of past reservoir conditions and thus reliable prediction of future operations; and (2) the procedure should, where applicable, be used to provide adequate reservoir data for use in two-dimensional flow calculations and related reservoir analyses.
One means of providing more precise engineering control over reservoir operations during all stages of depletion is to develop some type of model to simulate the reservoir, using information developed from the behavior of the prototype to predict the performance of the actual reservoir. The use of mathematical rather than physical models for this purpose has been gaining in importance recently because of the application and availability of electronic computers. Mathematical models avoid instrumentation difficulties and allow easier handling of large-scale problems. At present, analyses employing two-dimensional models are common, and thought is being given to the use of models in three dimensions. The use of multi-dimensional models is necessary to show not only what is occurring in the reservoir, but also where in the reservoir the phenomena of interest are taking place.
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