Hydraulic Fracture - Field Test to Determine Areal Extent and Orientation
- J.J. Reynolds (Continental Oil Co.) | J.B. Scott (Continental Oil Co.) | J.L. Popham (Continental Oil Co.) | H.F. Coffer (Continental Oil Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- April 1961
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 371 - 376
- 1961. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 3 Production and Well Operations, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 2.2.2 Perforating
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This paper concerns field experiments to define the areal extent, orientation and thickness of an artificial fracture in the Sacatosa field, Maverick County, Tex. The fracture was made by a sand-oil treatment of 176,000 gal of lease crude containing a fluid-loss additive and 270,000 lb of 20-40 mesh subangular Poteet sand. The well was perforated with a jet gun, consisting of six shots in a single plane. Fourteen test holes were drilled at various locations around the fractured well. Drill-stem tests, Micro and Sonic Logs, coring and sampling of formation cuttings were used to determine the presence of the fracture in these holes. The test holes were drilled at distances up to 250 ft in a radial pattern around the fractured well. In addition to fracture areal extent and orientation, sand grain size before and after fracturing, erosion of perforations and fracture thickness were studied.
The orientation, areal extent and thickness of artificially induced fractures in reservoir rock by hydraulic means have been discussed in great detail in the oil industry in recent years. Methods for initiating vertical and horizontal fractures have been tested in the laboratory and the field. Although the methods used give successful well stimulation, good field data on the physical characteristics of the fracture are lacking in the literature. It is recognized generally that properties of a fracture, such as thickness, sand placement in the fracture and shape, may vary from reservoir to reservoir. This paper gives data on size, orientation and sand placement in a large fracture initiated in a single plane in Sacatosa field, Maverick County, Tex. It is not intended as a speculative study; rather, it is restricted to actual field data on fracture properties. No attempt is made to prove that the same type of fracture occurs in all wells.
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