Production-Performance Diagnostics Using Field-Production Data and Analytical Models: Method and Case Study for the Hydraulically Fractured South Belridge Diatomite
- Zhengming Yang (Aera Energy LLC)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- December 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 712 - 724
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 4.3.4 Scale, 3.3 Well & Reservoir Surveillance and Monitoring, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 567 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Oil and water production data are regularly measured in oilfield operations and vary from well to well and change with time. Theoretical models are often used to establish the production expectation for different recovery processes. A performance surveillance understanding can be developed by comparing the field production data with the production expectation. This comparison generates quantitative or qualitative signals to determine whether the producer meets production expectations or the producer is underperforming and appropriate operational action is required to address the underperformance. The case study is for the South Belridge diatomite in California. This hydraulically fractured diatomite reservoir is currently under waterflood and steamflood. A methodology is proposed to establish the production expectation from historical production data. For primary depletion, the formation linear and bilinear flow models are applied to producers with vertical hydraulic fractures. For waterflood, an analytical method derived from the Buckley-Leverett displacement theory is used. Those analytical methods can predict production and provide surveillance signals for producers in the primary and waterflood recovery stages. For steamflood, a semiquantitative performance/surveillance criterion is proposed on the basis of understanding the mechanistic oil banking concept and reservoir simulation results for steamflood and waterflood. With those models representing expected production performance, an integrated flow regime diagram is proposed for production surveillance. A performance expectation can be developed for an individual producer. A significant overperformance relative to the expectation normally indicates changes in the recovery mechanism or improvement in sweep efficiency. A significant underperformance usually signifies an operational issue that requires correction to optimize the production performance. In the case study, the surveillance methodology for producers under primary depletion, waterflood, or steamflood is demonstrated by use of historical production data. In addition, water channeling between injectors and producers and its impact on production performance are discussed. On the basis of this surveillance methodology, some operational actions were proposed, and successful results are demonstrated. Examples of forecast for an individual producer in the primary depletion stage and field scale prediction in the waterflood stage are provided. Application indicates that the proposed methodology can serve as a convenient and practical tool for reservoir surveillance and operational optimization.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Azari, M., Soliman, M.Y., Wooden, W.O. et al. 1991. Performance Predictionfor Finite Conductivity Vertical Fracture. Paper SPE 22659 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 6-9 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22659-MS.
Cinco-Ley, H., and Samaniego-V., F. 1981. Transient Pressure Analysis forFractured Wells. J. Pet. Tech. 33 (9): 1749-1766. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7490-PA.
Hong, K.C. 1994. Steamflood Reservoir Management. Tulsa, Oklahoma:PennWell Books.
Lamoureux-Var, V. and Lorant, F. 2005. H2S Artificial Formationas a Result of Steam Injection for EOR: A Compositional Kinetic Approach. PaperSPE 97810 presented at the SPE/PS-CIM/CHOA International Thermal Operations andHeavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1-3 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97810-MS.
Nott, D.C. and Hara, S.K. 1991. Fracture Half-Length and Linear Flow in theSouth Belridge Diatomite. Paper SPE 21778 presented at the SPE Western RegionalMeeting, Long Beach, California, 20-22 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21778-MS.
Yang, Z. 2009a Analysis of Production Decline in Waterflood Reservoirs.Paper SPE 124613 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124613-MS.
Yang, Z. 2009b. A New Diagnostic Analysis Method for Waterflood Performance.SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (2): 341-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113856-PA.