High-Resolution Numerical Modeling of Complex and Irregular Fracture Patterns in Shale-Gas Reservoirs and Tight Gas Reservoirs
- Olufemi Olorode (Texas A&M University) | Craig M. Freeman (Texas A&M University) | George Moridis (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) | Thomas A. Blasingame (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 443 - 455
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 5.8.6 Naturally-fractured reservoirs
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 1,226 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Various models featuring horizontal wells with multiple fractures have beenproposed to characterize flow behavior over time in tight gas systems andshale-gas systems. Currently, little is known about the effects of nonidealfracture patterns and coupled primary-/ secondary-fracture interactions onreservoir performance in unconventional gas reservoirs. We developed a 3DVoronoi mesh-generation application that provides the flexibility to accuratelyrepresent various complex and irregular fracture patterns. We also developed anumerical simulator of gas flow through tight porous media, and used severalVoronoi grids to assess the potential performance of such irregular fractureson gas production from unconventional gas reservoirs. Our simulations involvedup to a half-million cells, and we considered production periods that areorders of magnitude longer than the expected productive life of wells andreservoirs. Our aim was to describe a wide range of flow regimes that can beobserved in irregular fracture patterns, and to fully assess even nuances inflow behavior. We investigated coupled primary/secondary fractures, withmultiple/vertical hydraulic fractures intersecting horizontal secondary"stress-release" fractures. We studied irregular fracture patterns to show theeffect of fracture angularity and nonplanar fracture configurations onproduction. The results indicate that the presence of high-conductivitysecondary fractures results in the highest increase in production, whereas,contrary to expectations, strictly planar and orthogonal fractures yield betterproduction performance than nonplanar and nonorthogonal fractures withequivalent propped-fracture lengths.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Anderson, D.M., Nobakht, M., Moghadam, S. et al. 2010. Analysis ofProduction Data From Fractured Shale Gas Wells. Paper SPE 131787 presented atthe SPE Unconventional Gas Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 23-25February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131787-MS.
Bello, R.O. and Wattenbarger, R.A. 2008. Rate Transient Analysis inNaturally Fractured Shale Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 114591 presented at theCIPC/SPE Gas Technology Symposium 2008 Joint Conference, Calgary, Alberta,Canada, 16-19 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114591-MS.
Blasingame, T.A. and Poe Jr., B.D. 1993. Semianalytic Solutions for a WellWith a Single Finite-Conductivity Vertical Fracture. Paper SPE 26424 presentedat the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 3-6October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26424-MS.
Cipolla, C.L., Lolon, E., Erdle, J. et al. 2009. Modeling Well Performancein Shale-Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 125532 presented at the SPE/EAGE ReservoirCharacterization and Simulation Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 19-21 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125532-MS.
Freeman, C.M. 2010. Study of Flow Regimes in Multiply-Fractured HorizontalWells in Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems. MS thesis, Texas A&MUniversity, College Station, Texas.
Freeman, C.M., Moridis, G.J., Ilk, D. et al. 2009. A Numerical Study ofPerformance for Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems. Paper SPE 124961presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans,Louisiana, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124961-MS.
Gringarten, A.C. 1971. Unsteady-State Pressure Distributions Created by aWell With a Single Horizontal Fracture, Partial Penetration, or RestrictedEntry. PhD dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
Gringarten, A.C. and Ramey Jr., Henry J. 1974. Unsteady-State PressureDistributions Created by a Well With a Single Infinite-Conductivity VerticalFracture. SPE J. 14 (4): 347-360. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4051-PA.
Houze, O., Tauzin, E., Artus, V. et al. 2010. The Analysis of Dynamic Datain Shale Gas Reservoirs—Part 1. Company report, Kappa Engineering, Houston,Texas.
Jayakumar, R., Sahai, V., and Boulis, A. 2011. A Better Understanding ofFinite Element Simulation for Shale Gas Reservoirs Through a Series ofDifferent Case Histories. Paper SPE 142464 presented at the SPE Middle EastUnconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, Muscat, Oman, 31 January-2February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142464-MS.
Mattar, L. 2008. Production Analysis and Forecasting of Shale GasReservoirs: Case History-Based Approach. Paper SPE 119897 presented at the SPEShale Gas Production Conference, Fort Worth, Texas, 16-18 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119897-MS.
Medeiros, F., Ozkan, E., and Kazemi, H. 2006. A Semianalytical,Pressure-Transient Model for Horizontal and Multilateral Wells in Composite,Layered, and Compartmentalized Reservoirs. Paper SPE 102834 presented at theSPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24-27September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102834-MS.
Miller, M.A., Jenkins, C.D., and Rai, R.R. 2010. Applying InnovativeProduction Modeling Techniques to Quantify Fracture Characteristics, ReservoirProperties, and Well Performance in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 139097presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Morgantown, West Virginia, 12-14October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139097-MS.
Moridis, G.J., Blasingame, T.A., and Freeman, C.M. 2010. Analysis ofMechanisms of Flow in Fractured Tight-Gas and Shale-Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE139250 presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum EngineeringConference, Lima, Peru, 1-3 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139250-MS.
Olorode, O.M. 2011. Numerical Modeling of Fractured Shale-Gas and Tight-GasReservoirs Using Unstructured Grids. MS thesis, Texas A&M University,College Station, Texas.
Palagi, C.L. and Aziz, K. 1994. Use of Voronoi Grid in Reservoir Simulation.SPE Advanced Technology Series 2 (2): 69-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22889-PA.
Rycroft, C.H. 2007. Multiscale Modeling in Granular Flow, PhD dissertation,Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Shelley, R.F., Lolon, E., Dzubin, B. et al. 2010. Quantifying the Effects ofWell Type and Hydraulic Fracture Selection on Recovery for Various ReservoirPermeabilities Using a Numerical Reservoir Simulator. Paper SPE 133985presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence,Italy, 19-22 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133985-MS.
Sun, X. and Mohanty, K.K. 2005. Simulation of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs.Paper SPE 93015 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Houston,Texas, 31 January-2 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93015-MS.