A Sonic Method for Analyzing the Quality of Cementation of Borehole Casings
- M. Grosmangin (Schlumberger Surenco S.A.) | P.P. Kokesh (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.) | P. Majani (Schlumberger Surenco S.A.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- February 1961
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 165 - 171
- 1961. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.6.5 Tracers, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 3 Production and Well Operations
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Determination of the quality of cementation of casing in oil wells in the past has involved inflow and circulation tests to insure that the producing zones were adequately sealed off from the adjacent zones. Existing logging methods, such as temperature and radioactivity surveys, may detect the presence of cement behind the casing. However, the qualities of the cement (i.e., its hardness and particularly its bond to the casing) are not indicated.
The new logging method described in this paper operates on the principle that the attenuation of a sonic pulse transmitted by a casing is greatly increased when that casing is bonded to an outer annulus of hard material (such as set cement) which has an appreciably smaller sonicwave velocity than that of the casing.
The down-hole tool contains a source of recurrent sound pulses which are detected by a receiver spaced a few feet from the source The amplitude of the detected casingborne pulse is measured, and the resulting signal is transmitted to the surface where it is recorded vs depth. Since amplitude is a function of attenuation, the log is readily interpreted.
Laboratory studies have shown straightforward relationship between attenuation and such variables as source-detector spacing and per cent of circumference bonded. It is shown that cement not set or not bonded to the casing has comparatively little attenuating effect. Field examples show not only the cement top, but also the variation in cementation quality below the top. Further, the increase of bonding with time and after squeeze cementation is depicted. The detection of poor cement jobs is confirmed by production tests and by formation-test results.
It is anticipated that the method will have wide application in evaluating cementation quality prior to formation testing in completions and recompletions. The analysis it affords may aid in further improving cementation techniques.
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