Wettability Studies Using Low-Salinity Water in Sandstone Reservoirs
- Mohammed B. Alotaibi (Texas A&M University) | Ramez A. Nasralla (Texas A&M University) | Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- December 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 713 - 725
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 4.1.9 Tanks and storage systems
- High temperature, Low?Salinity Water, Sandstone Reservoir, Contact Angles, Wettability
- 9 in the last 30 days
- 2,460 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The ionic strength of injection water can have a major impact on oil recovery resulting from the use of low-salinity brines. Understanding how the water and oil chemistry affects the final recovery from a physicochemical point of view is necessary in order to optimize low-salinity waterflooding. It is clear from the literature that wettability is a key factor in achieving the low-salinity effect. Optimum ionic strength and conditions for low-salinity flooding with respect to wettability are still uncertain.
In this paper, we studied fluid/rock interactions at different salinity levels and elevated temperature conditions in terms of wettability and surface charge. Wettability is determined by a high-temperature/high-pressure (HT/HP) contact-angle method and zeta-potential technique. Outcrop rocks and stock-tank crude-oil samples were used in all experiments. Synthetic formation brines, aquifer, and seawater were evaluated under high-pressure conditions. Zeta potential of sandstone rocks and selected clay minerals was measured as a function of ionic strength.
Wettability of oil/brine/sandstone systems depends on salinity, temperature, and rock mineralogy. Using aquifer water in Berea sandstone improved the wettability toward water-wet condition. The same aquifer water behaved in a different way when a different sandstone surface was tested. In Scioto sandstone, aquifer water changed the wettability to neutral state. Low-salinity water expanded the double-layer thickness and eventually increased the zeta-potential magnitude. As a result of this expansion, it provides a greater opportunity to alter the wettability and enhance oil recovery. This study indicates that clay content in sandstone rocks can significantly alter the wettability either toward water-wet or intermediate. On the basis of the results obtained from this study, it is clear that low-salinity waterflooding can improve oil recovery in the field.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Agbalaka, C., Dandekar, A., Patil, S., Khataniar, S., and Hemsath, J.2009. Coreflooding Studies to Evaluate the Impact of Salinity and Wettabilityon Oil Recovery Efficiency. Transport Porous Media 76 (1):77-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-008-9235-7.
Alotaibi, M.B. and Nasr-El-Din, H.A. 2009a. Chemistry of Injection Water andits Impact on Oil Recovery in Carbonate and Clastic Formations. Paper SPE121565 presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, TheWoodlands, Texas, USA, 20-22 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121565-MS.
Alotaibi, M.B. and Nasr-El-Din, H.A. 2009b. Salinity of Injection Water andIts Impact on Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 121569 presented at the EUROPEC/EAGEConference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 8-11 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121569-MS.
Anderson, W.G. 1986. Wettability Literature Survey—Part 1: Rock/Oil/BrineInteractions and the Effects of Core Handling on Wettability. J PetTechnol 38 (10): 1125-1144. SPE-13932-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13932-PA.
Andreas, J.M., Hauser, E.A., and Tucker, W.B. 1938. Boundary Tensionby Pendant Drops. The Journal of Physical Chemistry 42 (8):1001-1019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/j100903a002.
Brown, C.E. and Neustadter, E.L. 1980. The Wettability of Oil/Water/SilicaSystems With Reference to Oil Recovery. J Can Pet Technol 19 (3): 100-110. JCPT Paper No. 80-03-06. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80-03-06.
Buckley, J.S., Bousseau, C., and Liu, Y. 1996. Wetting Alteration byBrine and Crude Oil: From Contact Angles to Cores. SPE J. 1(3): 341-350. SPE-30765-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30765-PA.
Buckley, J.S. and Liu, Y. 1998. Some mechanisms of crude oil/brine/solidinteractions. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 20 (3-4): 155-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0920-4105(98)00015-1.
Hirasaki, G. and Zhang, D.L. 2003. Surface Chemistry of Oil Recovery FromFractured, Oil-Wet, Carbonate Formation. Paper SPE 80988 presented at theInternational Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 5-7 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80988-MS.
Hjelmeland, O.S. and Larrondo, L.E. 1986. Experimental Investigation of theEffects of Temperature, Pressure and Crude Oil Composition on InterfacialProperties. SPE Res Eng 1 (4): 321-328. SPE-12124-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12124-PA.
Hussain, S.A., Demirci, S., and Özbayoglu, G. 1996. Zeta PotentialMeasurements on Three Clays from Turkey and Effects of Clays on Coal Flotation.J. Colloid Interface Sci. 184 (2): 535-541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1996.0649.
Kia, S.F., Fogler, H.S., Reed, M.G., and Vaidya, R.N. 1987. Effect ofSalt Composition on Clay Release in Berea Sandstones. SPE Prod Eng 2 (4): 277-283. SPE-15318-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15318-PA.
Li, D. and Neumann, A.W. 1992. Contact angles on hydrophobic solid surfacesand their interpretation. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 148(1): 190-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(92)90127-8.
Liu, L. and Buckley, J.S. 1999. Alteration of wetting of mica surfaces.J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 24 (2-4): 75-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0920-4105(99)00050-9.
Morrow, N.R., Tang, G.-Q., Valat, M., and Xie, X. 1998. Prospects ofimproved oil recovery related to wettability and brine composition. J. Pet.Sci. Eng. 20 (3-4): 267-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(98)00030-8.
Shaw, J.C., Churcher, P.L., and Hawkins, B.F. 1991. The Effect ofFiring on Berea Sandstone. SPE Form Eval 6 (1): 72-78.SPE-18463-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18463-PA.
Stephan, E.A. and Chase, G.G. 2001. A preliminary examination of zetapotential and deep bed filtration activity. Sep. Purif. Technol. 21 (3): 219-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1383-5866(00)00202-1.
Wang, W. and Gupta, A. 1995. Investigation of the Effect of Temperature andPressure on Wettability Using Modified Pendent Drop Method. Paper SPE 30544presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 22-25October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30544-MS.
Weiner, B.B., Tscharnuter, W.W., and Fairhurst, D. 1993. ZetaPotential: A New Approach. Paper presented at the Canadian Mineral AnalystsMeeting, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 8-12 September.
Xie, X., Morrow, N.R., and Buckley, J.S. 2002. Contact anglehysteresis and the stability of wetting changes induced by adsorption fromcrude oil. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 33 (1-3): 147-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0920-4105(01)00182-6.
Xu, W., Ayirala, S.C., and Rao, D.N. 2006. Compositional Dependence ofWetting and Contact Angles in Solid-Liquid-Liquid Systems under RealisticEnvironments. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 84 (1): 44-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450840108.
Yang, S.Y., Hirasaki, G.J., Basu, S., and Vaidya, R. 1999. Mechanismsfor contact angle hysteresis and advancing contact angles. J. Pet. Sci.Eng. 24 (2-4): 63-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0920-4105(99)00049-2.
Yukselen, Y. and Kaya, A. 2003. Zeta Potential of Kaolinite in the Presenceof Alkali, Alkaline Earth and Hydrolyzable Metal Ions. Water Air SoilPollut. 145 (1): 155-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1023684213383.
Zhang, Y., Xie, X., and Morrow, N.R. 2007. Waterflood performance byinjection of brine with different salinity for reservoir cores. Paper SPE109849 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109849-MS.