Water Mixing During Waterflood Oil Recovery: The Effect of Initial Water Saturation
- Arne Graue (University of Bergen) | Martin A. Fernø (University of Bergen) | Robert W. Moe (University of Bergen) | Bernard A. Baldwin (Green Country Petrophysics) | Riley Needham (ConocoPhillips)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- March 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 43 - 52
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.6.5 Tracers, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment
- initial water saturation, waterflood, water mixing
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 803 since 2007
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This work studies the mixing of injected water and in-situ water during waterfloods and demonstrates that the mixing process is sensitive to the initial water saturation. The results illustrate differences between a waterflooded zone and a preflooded zone during, for example, water-based EOR displacement processes. The mixing of in-situ, or connate, water and injected water during laboratory waterfloods in a strongly water-wet chalk core sample was determined at different initial water saturations. Dynamic 1D fluid-saturation profiles were determined with nuclear-tracer imaging (NTI) during waterfloods, distinguishing between the oil phase, connate water, and injected water. The mixing of connate and injected water during waterfloods, with the presence of an oil phase, resulted in a displacement of all connate water from the core plug. During displacement, connate water banked in front of the injecting water, separating (or partially separating) the injected water from the mobile oil phase. This may impact the ability of chemicals dissolved in the injected water to contact the oil during secondary recovery and EOR processes. The effect of the connate-water-bank separation was sensitive to the initial water saturation Swi ). The time difference between breakthrough of connate water and breakthrough of injected water at the outlet showed a linear correlation to the initial water saturation (Swi ). The results obtained in chalk confirmed earlier findings in sandpacks (Brown 1957) and thus demonstrated the generality in the results.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||10|
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