Electrokinetics of Limestone and Dolomite Rock Particles
- Mohammed B. Alotaibi (Texas A&M University) | Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University) | James J. Fletcher (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- October 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 594 - 603
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.3.4 Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation
- Zeta potential, Calcite, Electrokintetics, Dolomite, Ionic strength
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 1,441 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
High-salinity water such as seawater, or formation brines, is frequently injected in carbonate reservoirs. Ion interactions between injection water, reservoir fluids, and rock surface are quite complex. It has recently come to be believed that the chemistry of injection water can significantly enhance oil recovery. Several reaction mechanisms were suggested, including rock dissolution, change of surface charge, and/or sulfate precipitation.
This study attempts to characterize the electrokinetics of limestone and dolomite suspensions at 25 and 50°C. In addition, reaction mechanisms at the water/rock interface were established. Synthetic formation brine, seawater, and aquifer water were chosen from Middle East reservoirs. Carbonate particles were soaked in high- and low-salinity water. A phase-analysis-light-scattering (PALS) technique was used to determine the zeta potential (surface charge) of carbonate particles over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, and temperature.
Zeta potential of limestone particles was significantly affected by calcium ion. Low-salinity water created more negative charges on limestone and dolomite particles by expanding the thickness of the diffuse double layer. Individual divalent cations decreased the zeta potential of limestone particles in sodium chloride solutions, while sulfate ions showed a negligible effect. Limestone particles in high-salinity water had decreased zeta potential. The solubility of calcium ions increased as temperature was increased and thus created additional negative charges. The absence of sulfate in aquifer water strongly influenced the dolomite surface charge. In summary, surface-charge adjustment from positive to negative can alter the wettability of carbonate rock from preferentially oil-wet to water-wet. As a result, residual-oil saturation should be decreased.
|File Size||646 KB||Number of Pages||10|
Alotaibi, M.B., Azmy, R.M., and Nasr-El-Din, H.A. 2010. A Comprehensive EORStudy Using Low Salinity Water in Sandstone Reservoirs. Paper SPE 129976presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24-28 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129976-MS.
Austad, T. and Standnes, D.C. 2003. Spontaneous imbibition of water intooil-wet carbonates. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 39 (3-4): 363-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(03)00075-5.
Douglas, H.W. and Walker, R.A. 1950. The electrokinetic behavior of IcelandSpar against Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions. Trans. FaradaySoc. 46: 559-568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/tf9504600559.
Hiorth, A., Cathles, L.M., and Madland, M.V. 2010. The Impact of Pore WaterChemistry on Carbonate Surface Charge and Oil Wettability. Transport inPorous Media 85 (1): 1-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-010-9543-6.
Levine, S., Mingins, J., and Bell, G.M. 1967. The discrete-ion effect inionic double-layer theory. J. of Electroanalytical Chemistry and InterfacialElectrochemistry 13 (3): 280-329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0728(67)80125-6.
McGraw-Hill. 2010. Access Science, http://www.accessscience.com/index.aspx(accessed 20 December 2010).
Möller, P. and Werr, G. 1972. Influence of Anions on Ca2+-Mg2+ Surface Exchange Process on Calcite in Artificial Sea Water.Radiochimica Acta 18 (3): 144-147.
Nyström, R., Lindén, M., and Rosenholm, J.B. 2001. The Influence ofNa2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, and La3+ on the ?Potential and the Yield Stress of Calcite Dispersions. J. of Colloid andInterface Science 242 (1): 259-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2001.7766.
Pierre, A., Lamarche, J.M., Foissy, A., and Persello, J. 1990. Calcium asPotential Determining Ion in Aqueous Calcite Suspensions. J. of DispersionScience and Technology 11 (6): 611-635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01932699008943286.
Pokrovsky, O.S., Mielczarski, J.A., Barres, O., and Schott, J. 2000. SurfaceSpeciation Models of Calcite and Dolomite/Aqueous Solution Interfaces and theirSpectroscopic Evaluation. Langmuir 16 (6): 2677-2688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la980905e.
Rodríguez, K. and Araujo, M. 2006. Temperature and pressure effects on zetapotential values of reservoir minerals. J. of Colloid and InterfaceScience 300 (2): 788-794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.04.030.
Siffert, D. and Fimbel, P. 1984. Parameters affecting the sign and magnitudeof the eletrokinetic potential of calcite. J. of Colloids and Surfaces11 (3-4): 377-389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-6622(84)80291-7.
Smani, M.S., Blazy, P., and Cases, J.M. 1975. Beneficiation of SedimentaryMoroccan Phosphate Ores--Part II: Electrochemical Phenomena at theCalcite/Aqueous Interface. Trans. Soc. Min. Eng. (SME/AIME)258: 174-176.
Somasundaran, P. and Agar, G.E. 1967. The zero point charge of calcite.J. of Colloid and Interface Science 24 (4): 433-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(67)90241-X.
Strand, S. , Høgnesen, E.J., and Austad, T.2006. Wettability alteration of carbonates-Effects of potential determiningions (Ca2+ and SO42-) and temperature.Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 275 (1-3): 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.10.061.
Strubbe, F., Beunis, F., Marescaux, M., and Neyts, K. 2007. Chargingmechanism in colloidal particles leading to a linear relation between chargeand size. Phys. Rev. E 75 (3): 0314051-0314088. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.75.031405.
Van Cappelen, P., Charlet, L., Stumm, W., and Wersin, P. 1993. A surfacecomplexation model of the carbonate mineral-aqueous solutioninterface.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57 (15):3505-3518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(93)90135-J.
Wikipedia. 2010a. Double layer (interfacial), (16 December 2010 revision),http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Double_layer_(interfacial)&oldid=402738275(accessed 20 December 2010).
Wikipedia. 2010b. Semipermeable membrane (4 October 2010 revision), http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Semipermeable_membrane&oldid=388646914(accessed 20 December 2010).
Yarar, B. and Kitchener, J.A. 1970. Selective Flocculation of Minerals: 1-Basic Principles, 2- Experimental Investigation of Quartz, Calcite and Galena.Trans. IMM C 79: 23-33.
Zhang, P. and Austad, T. 2006. Wettability and oil recovery from carbonates:Effects of temperatures and potential determining ions. Colloids andSurfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 279 (1-3):179-187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.01.009.
Zhang, P., Tweheyo, M.T., and Austad, T. 2007. Wettability alteration andimproved oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition of seawater into chalk: Impactof the potential determining ions Ca2+, Mg2+, andSO42-. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical andEngineering Aspects 301 (1-3): 199-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.12.058.
Zhang, Y. and Morrow, N.R. 2006. Comparison of Secondary and TertiaryRecovery With Change in Injection Brine Composition for Crude Oil/SandstoneCombinations. Paper SPE 99757 presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on ImprovedOil Recovery, Tulsa, 22-26 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99757-MS.