Experimental Evaluation of Well Perforation Methods as Applied to Hard Limestone
- Henry Lewelling (The Atlantic Refining Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- June 1952
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 163 - 168
- 1952. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 2.2.2 Perforating, 2 Well Completion, 1.8 Formation Damage, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing
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An experimental investigation of the relative effectiveness of standard bullets and "shaped charges" in perforating dense, hard formations is reported. A method is described which simulates the conditions under which a shot is normally fired. Results are evaluated on the basis of depth of penetration, extent of fracturing, extent and nature of formation damage, and other physical characteristics.
A study was made of the relative merits of bullets and "shaped charges" as applied to well completions in hard dense formations such as those encountered in the Permian Basin. The planning of the laboratory program stipulated that core samples should he prepared and mounted in such a way that perforation shots of either kind could be fired into them, keeping the factors pertinent to good shooting practice similar to what they would be in a well.
The shooting was done in a buried tank, with the sample and shooting equipment covered with water. The depth of water was calculated to be sufficient to simulate the inertial effects of well fluids for the duration of an explosion (a few micro-seconds).
Flow measurements were attempted on the specimens after perforation. Due to the lack of uniformity of the limestone, shale breaks, etc., these measurements proved to be of little value to the study. The mounting materials were removed, so that the character of the penetration, fracturing, etc., could be observed.
Laboratory samples were selected from the hard, dolomitic sand cores from Block 31 Field. Core pieces having a 3% in. diameter and a useful length of 10 to 12 in. were used. Selection was aimed at those pieces having a minimum of shale streaks and other irregularities. The ends were cut off square with the diamond saw. Prior to being mounted, the cores were soaked in water to prevent them from absorbing water out of the wet concrete, thus weakening it.
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