Dynamic Aspects Governing Cement-Plug Placement in Deepwater Wells
- Pedro E. Aranha (Petrobras S.A.) | Cristiane R. Miranda (Petrobras S.A.) | Joao V.M. Magalhães (PUC-Catholic University) | Gilson Campos (Petrobras) | Andre L. Martins (Petrobras S.A.) | Andre B. Ramalho (PUC-Catholic University) | Monica F. Naccache (PUC-Catholic University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- September 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 341 - 351
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 1.14 Casing and Cementing
- displacement, cement plug
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 698 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Plug cementing is still considered to be a critical operation, and cases of failure eventually happen. A large annular gap and eccentricity, typical of these operations, are factors that may promote unstable flows, resulting in cement-slurry contamination. Deepwater conditions enhance chances of free fall, and, consequently, low displacement velocities can occur in the annulus.
This article presents a parametric study of the role of rheological properties of fluids (drilling fluid, spacers, and cements slurries), string rotation, and flow rates (including free-fall effects) in the displacement quality of cement plugs. Analyses are based on two different simulation tools. Conventional cement-pumping software defines flow-rate profiles at the annulus entrance, accounting for free-fall effects, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulates the interface propagation and contamination levels.
The main issues addressed by the simulations are
- What are the maximum yield stresses that guarantee nonstagnation regions while circulating the drilling fluid?
- How can one optimize density and rheology hierarchy, which minimizes contamination and avoids channeling?
- What is the role of string rotation on the displacement efficiency?
The compilation of simulation results into useful guidelines and procedures for displacing cement plugs in vertical, inclined, and horizontal offshore wells is presented.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Azouz, I., Shirazi, S.A., Pilehvari, A., and Azar, J.J.1992. Numerical Simulation of Laminar Flow of Newtonian and Non-NewtonianFluids in Conduits of Arbitrary Cross-Section. Paper SPE 24406 available fromSPE, Richardson, Texas.
Beirute, R.M. 1984. The Phenomenon of Free Fall During PrimaryCementing. Paper SPE 13045 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Houston, 16-19 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13045-MS.
Campos, W., Lage, A.C.V.M., and Poggio, A. Jr. 1993.Free-Fall-Effect Calculation Ensures Better Cement-Operation Design. SPEDrill & Compl 8 (3): 175-178. SPE-21107-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21107-PA.
Dees, J.M. and Spradlin Jr., W.N. 1982. Successful DeepOpenhole Cement Plugs for the Anadarko Basin. Paper SPE 10957 presented at theSPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 26-29 September.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10957-MS.
Dutra, E.S.S., Martins, A.L., Miranda, C.R., et al. 2005. Dynamics of FluidSubstitution While Drilling and Completing Long Horizontal-Section Wells. PaperSPE 94623 presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean PetroleumEngineering Conference, Rio de Janeiro, 20-23 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94623-MS.
Dutra, E.S.S., Naccache, M.F., Souza Mendes, P.R., Souto,C.A.O., Martins, A.L. and Miranda, C.R. 2004. Analysis of Interface BetweenNewtonian and non-Newtonian Fluids Inside Annular Eccentric Tubes. PaperIMECE2004-59335 presented at the 2004 ASME International Mechanical EngineeringCongress (2004 ASME/IMECE), Anaheim, California, USA, 13-19 November.
Fluent 6.1 User Guide. 2003. Lebanon, New Hampshire: Fluent,Inc.
Frigaard, I.A. and Pelipenko, S. 2003. Effective andIneffective Strategies for Mud Removal and Cement Slurry Design. Paper SPE80999 presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum EngineeringConference, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 27-30 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80999-MS.
Frigaard, I.A., Bittleston, S.H., and Ferguson, J. 2002. Mud Removal andCement Placement During Primary Cementing of an Oil Well--Laminar Non-NewtonianDisplacements in an Eccentric Annular Hele-Shaw Cell. J. Eng. Math. 43 (2-4): 229-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1020370417367.
Haut, R.C. and Crook, R.J. 1979. Primary Cementing: The Mud DisplacementProcess. Paper SPE 8253 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 23-26 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8253-MS.
Haut, R.C. and Crook, R.J. 1982. Laboratory Investigation of Lightweight,Low-Viscosity Cementing Spacer Fluids. J Pet Technol 34(8): 1828-1834. SPE-10305-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10305-PA.
Heathman, J. and Carpenter, R. 1994. Quality ManagementAlliance Eliminates Plug Failures. Paper SPE 28321 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 25-28 September http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28321-MS.
Heathman, J.F. 1996. Advances in Cement-Plug Procedures. JPet Technol 48 (9): 825-831. SPE-36351-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36351-MS.
Hirt, C.R. and Nichols, B.D. 1981. Volume of Fluid (VOF) Methodfor the Dynamics of Free Boundaries. J. Comput. Phys. 39(1): 201-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9991(81)90145-5.
Jakobsen, J., Sterri, N., Saasen, A., Aas, B., Kjosnes, I., and Vigen,A. 1991. Displacements in Eccentric Annuli During Primary Cementing in DeviatedWells. Paper SPE 21686 presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium,Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 7-9 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21686-MS.
Lockyear, C.F. and Hibbert, A.P. 1989. Integrated Primary Cementing StudyDefines Key Factors for Field Success. J Pet Technol 41(12): 1320-1325. SPE-18376-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18376-PA.
Patankar, S.V. 1980. Numerical Heat Transfer and FluidFlow. Bristol, Pennsylvania: Series in Computational Methods in Mechanicsand Thermal Sciences, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.
Salahub, W.F. and Ripley, H.E. 1980. Obtaining Open-hole CementPlugs On The First Attempt. J Can Pet Technol 19 (1):80-85. JCPT Paper No. 80-01-06. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80-01-06.
Sauer, C.W. 1987. Mud Displacement During Cementing State of the Art. JPet Technol 39 (9): 1091-1101. SPE-14197-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14197-PA.
Smith, R.C. 1984. Improved Method of Setting Successful CementPlugs. J Pet Technol 36 (11): 1897-1904. SPE 11415. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11415-PA.
Tehrani, A., Ferguson, J., and Bittleston, S.H. 1992.Laminar Displacement in Annuli: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study.Paper SPE 24569 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Washington, DC, 4-7 October http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24569-MS.
Tehrani, M.A., Bittleston, S.H., and Long, P.J.G. 1993.Flow Instabilities During Annular Displacement of One Non-Newtonian Fluid byAnother. Exp. Fluids 14 (4): 246-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00194015.