Numerical-Simulation Investigation of the Effect of Heavy-Oil Viscosity on the Performance of Hydrocarbon Additives in SAGD
- Moslem Hosseininejad Mohebati (University of Calgary) | Brij B. Maini (University of Calgary) | Thomas G. Harding (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- April 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 165 - 181
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.3.9 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 6.5.1 Air Emissions, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
- Non-condensable, Hydrocarbon Additives, SAGD, Athabasca, ES-SAGD
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 1,303 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Heavy oil and bitumen are expected to become increasingly important sources of fuel in the coming decades. There are extensive deposits in Alberta that could be a principal source of fuel in the coming century. The Athabasca oil sands, the largest petroleum accumulation in the world; the Cold Lake oil deposit; and the Lloydminster reservoir are all major Canadian oil-sands deposits. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), which has shown considerable promise in all three of these major deposits, remains an expensive technique and requires large energy input. The energy intensity of SAGD and the environmental concerns make it imperative to find new oil-extraction technologies.
Coinjecting hydrocarbon additives with steam offers the potential of lower energy and water consumption and reduced greenhouse-gas emission by improving the oil rates and recoveries. In a previous paper by the same authors (Hosseininejad Mohebati et al. 2010), we showed that the selection of a suitable hydrocarbon additive and the effectiveness of this hybrid process are strongly dependent on the operating conditions, reservoir-fluid composition, the heavy-oil viscosity, and the petrophysical properties of the reservoir. Among these factors, the heavy-oil viscosity, which is the main difference between these three reservoirs, could be a very important parameter in the performance of this hybrid process. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the hydrocarbon additives to SAGD for these three oil-sand deposits separately.
Extensive numerical studies in a 3D model by means of a fully implicit thermal simulator were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of each hydrocarbon additive with different heavy-oil viscosities (resembling those of Athabasca bitumen, Cold Lake heavy oil, and Lloydminster heavy oil). Varying mole percents of hexane, butane, and methane were coinjected with steam to each reservoir with different heavy-oil viscosity. The optimum amount of hydrocarbon injection was reported in each case. This culminated in a novel method for selecting the most advantageous hydrocarbon additive and its optimum concentration considering the heavy-oil viscosity.
|File Size||9 MB||Number of Pages||17|
Butler, R. 1997. The Steam and Gas Push (SAGP). Paper 97-137 presented atthe Petroleum Society's Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, 8-11 June.
Butler, R.M. 1991. Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen. EnglewoodCliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall.
Butler, R.M. and Mokrys, I.J. 1991. A New Process (VAPEX) for RecoveringHeavy Oils Using Hot Water and Hydrocarbon Vapour. J Can Pet Technol 30 (1): 97-106.
Butler, R.M. and Yee, C.T. 2002. Progress in the In Situ Recovery of HeavyOils and Bitumen. J Can Pet Technol 41 (1). JCPT Paper No.02-01-02. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/02-01-02.
Butler, R.M., McNab, G.S., and Lo, H.Y. 1981. Theoretical studies on thegravity drainage of heavy oil during in situ steam heating. Can. J. Chem.Eng. 59 (4): 455-460.
Canbolat, S., Akin, S., and Kovscek, A.R. 2002. A Study of Steam-AssistedGravity Drainage Performance in the Presence of Noncondensable Gases. Paper SPE75130 presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 13-17April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75130-MS.
CMG. 2009. SAGD Simulation using STARS. Computer Modelling Group ShortCourse presented at the CMG Training Centre, Calgary, 19-22 October.
Farouq Ali, S.M. and Abad, B. 1976. Bitumen Recovery from Oil Sands, UsingSolvents in Conjunction With Steam. J Can Pet Technol 15(3): 80-90. JCPT Paper No. 76-03-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/76-03-11.
Gates, I.D. 2007. Oil Phase Viscosity Behaviour in Expanding-SolventSteam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 59(1-2): 123-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2007.03.006.
Gates, I.D. 2010. Solvent-Aided Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage in Thin OilSand Reservoirs. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 74 (3-4): 138-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2010.09.003.
Gupta, S., Gittins, S., and Picherack, P. 2002. Field Implementation ofSolvent Aided Process. Paper CIPC 2002-299 presented at the Petroleum Society'sCanadian International Petroleum Conference (CIPC), Calgary, 11-13 June.
Jiang, Q., Butler, R., and Yee, C.T. 1998. Steam and Gas Push (SAGP)—2:Mechanism Analysis and Physical Model Testing. Paper 98-43 presented at thePetroleum Society's Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, 8-10 June.
Mehrotra, A.K. and Svrcek, W.Y. 1986. Viscosity of compressed Athabascabitumen. The Canadian J. of Chemical Engineering 64 (5):844-847. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450640520.
Mohebati, M.H., Maini, B.B., and Harding, T.G. 2010. Numerical Evaluation ofHydrocarbon Additives to Steam in the SAGD Process. J Can Pet Technol 49 (9): 42-55. SPE-140338-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140338-PA.
Nasr, T.N. and Isaacs, E.E. 2001. Process for enhancing hydrocarbon mobilityusing a steam additive. US Patent No. 6,230,814.
Nasr, T.N., Beaulieu, G., Golbeck, H., and Heck, G. 2003. Novel ExpendingSolvent-SAGD Process ES-SAGD. J Can Pet Technol 42 (1):13-16.
Palmgren, C. and Edmunds, N. 1995. High Temperature Naptha to Replace Steamin the SAGD Process. Paper SPE 30294 presented at the SPE International HeavyOil Symposium, Calgary, 19-21 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30294-MS.
Pirela, L.V. and Farouq Ali, S.M. 1968. Ternary Phase Behavior at HighTemperatures. SPE J. 8 (4): 381-388. SPE 2043. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2043-PA.
Stone, H.L. 1970. Probability Model for Estimating Three-Phase RelativePermeability. J Pet Technol 22 (2): 214-218. SPE-2116-PA.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2116-PA.
Wilson, G.M. 1968. A Modified Redlich-Kwong Equation of State, Applicationto General Physical Data Calculations. Paper 15-C presented at the NationalAIChE Meeting, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 4-7 May.