Spontaneous Potentials in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs During Waterflooding: Application to Water-Front Monitoring
- Matthew D. Jackson (Imperial College London) | Murtaza Y. Gulamali (Imperial College London) | Eli Leinov (Imperial College London) | Jonathan H. Saunders (Imperial College London) | Jan Vinogradov (Imperial College London)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- March 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 53 - 69
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.4.1 Waterflooding
- inflow control, reservoir monitoring, waterfront imaging, self-potential, waterfront surveillance
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 895 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Spontaneous potential (SP) is routinely measured using wireline tools during reservoir characterization. However, SP signals are also generated during hydrocarbon production, in response to gradients in the water-phase pressure (relative to hydrostatic), chemical composition, and temperature. We use numerical modeling to investigate the likely magnitude of the SP in an oil reservoir during production, and suggest that measurements of SP, using electrodes permanently installed downhole, could be used to detect and monitor water encroaching on a well while it is several tens to hundreds of meters away. We simulate the SP generated during production from a single vertical well, with pressure support provided by water injection. We vary the production rate, and the temperature and salinity of the injected water, to vary the contribution of the different components of the SP signal. We also vary the values of the so-called "coupling coefficients," which relate gradients in fluid potential, salinity, and temperature to gradients in electrical potential. The values of these coupling coefficients at reservoir conditions are poorly constrained.
We find that the magnitude of the SP can be large (up to hundreds of mV) and peaks at the location of the moving water front, where there are steep gradients in water saturation and salinity. The signal decays with distance from the front, typically over several tens to hundreds of meters; consequently, the encroaching water can be detected and monitored before it arrives at the production well. Before water breakthrough, the SP at the well is dominated by the electrokinetic and electrochemical components arising from gradients in fluid potential and salinity; thermoelectric potentials only become significant after water breakthrough, because the temperature change associated with the injected water lags behind the water front. The shape of the SP signal measured along the well reflects the geometry of the encroaching waterfront. Our results suggest that SP monitoring during production, using permanently installed downhole electrodes, is a promising method to image moving water fronts. Larger signals will be obtained in low-permeability reservoirs produced at high rate, saturated with formation brine of low salinity, or with brine of a very different salinity from that injected.
|File Size||5 MB||Number of Pages||17|
Agar, J.N., Mou, C.Y., and Lin, J.L. 1989. Single-ion heat of transport inelectrolyte solutions: a hydrodynamic theory. J. Phys. Chem. 93(5): 2079-2082. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/j100342a073.
Braun, B.M. and Weingartner, H. 1985. Transference numbers of aqueous NaCland Na2SO4 at 25°C from EMF measurements withsodium-selective glass electrodes. Journal of Solution Chemistry14 (9): 675-686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00646059.
Bryant, I.D., Chen, M.-Y., Raghuraman, B., Raw, I., Delhomme, J.-P.,Chouzenoux, C., Pohl, D., et al. 2002. An Application of Cemented ResistivityArrays to Monitor Waterflooding of the Mansfield Sandstone, Indiana, USA.SPE Res Eng 5 (6): 447-454. SPE-81752-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/81752-PA.
Bryant, I.D., Chen, M.-Y., Raghuraman, B., Schroeder, R., Supp, M., Navarro,J., Raw, I., Smith, J., and Scaggs, M. 2004. Real-Time Monitoring and Controlof Water Influx to a Horizontal Well Using Advanced Completion Equipped WithPermanent Sensors. SPE Drill & Compl 19 (4): 253-264.SPE-77522-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77522-PA.
Chen, M.-Y., Raghuraman, B., and Bryant, I.D. 2006. Streaming PotentialApplications in Oil Fields. Paper SPE 102106 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102106-MS.
Corwin, R.F. and Hoover, B.H. 1979. The self-potential method in geothermalexploration. Geophysics 44 (2): 226-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1440964.
Dake, L.P. 1978. Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering, No. 8.Amsterdam: Developments in Petroleum Science, Elsevier Science BV.
DeGroot, S.R. and Mazur, P. 1962. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics.Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland Publishing Company.
Doll, H.G. 1948. The SP Log: Theoretical Analysis andPrinciples of Interpretation. SPE- 949146-G. Trans., AIME, 179: 146-185.
Dorfman, M.H., Oskay, M.M., and Gaddis,M.P. 1977. Self-Potential Profiling—A New Technique for Determination of HeatMovement in a Thermal Oil Recovery Flood. Paper SPE 6790 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 9-12 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6790-MS.
Hallenburg, J.K. 1971. A Resume of Spontaneous Potential Measurements. Paper1971-H presented at the SPWLA 12th Annual Logging Symposium, The Woodlands,Texas, USA, 2-5 May.
Hunter, R.J. 1981. Zeta Potential in Colloid Science. New York:Academic Press.
Ishido, T. and Mizutani, H. 1981. Experimental and Theoretical Basis ofElectrokinetic Phenomena in Rock-Water Systems and Its Applications toGeophysics. J. Geophys. Res. 86 (B3): 1763-1775. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB086iB03p01763.
Jaafar, M.Z., Vinogradov, J., and Jackson, M.D. 2009. Measurement ofstreaming potential coupling coefficient in sandstones saturated with highsalinity NaCl brine. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (21): L21306.http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009gl040549.
Jackson, M.D. 2008. Characterization of multiphase electrokinetic couplingusing a bundle of capillary tubes model. J. Geophys. Res. 113 (B4): B04201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007jb005490.
Jackson, M.D. 2010. Multiphase electrokinetic coupling: Insights into theimpact of fluid and charge distribution at the pore scale from a bundle ofcapillary tubes model. J. Geophys. Res. 115 (B7): B07206.http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009jb007092.
Jackson, M.D., Butler, A.P., Vinogradov, J., and Saunders, J.H. Inpress. Measurements of spontaneous potential in chalk with application toaquifer characterisation in the southern UK. Q. J. Eng. Geol.Hydrogeol.
Jackson, M.D., Saunders, J.H., and Addiego-Guevara, E.A. 2005. Developmentand Application of New Downhole Technology To Detect Water Encroachment TowardIntelligent Wells. Paper SPE 97063 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97063-MS.
Jackson, M.D., Vinogradov, J., Saunders, J.H. and Jaafar, M.Z. 2011.Laboratory Measurements and numerical Modeling of Streaming Potential forDownhole Monitoring in Intelligent Wells. SPE J. 16 (3):625-636. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/120460-PA.
Leinov, E., Vinogradov, J., and Jackson, M.D. 2010. Salinity dependence ofthe thermoelectric coupling coefficient in brine-saturated sandstones.Geophys. Res. Lett. 37 (23): L23308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010gl045379.
Lynch, E.J. 1962. Formation Evaluation. New York: Harper and Row.
Marshall, D.J. and Madden, T.R. 1959. Induced Polarization, A Study of itsCauses. Geophysics 24 (4): 790-816. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1438659.
McCall, C.M. 1970. The Effect of Hydrocarbons on the ElectrochemicalPotential Across Porous Media. PhD thesis, Texas A&M University,College Station, Texas.
Mounce, W.D. and Rust, W.M. Jr. 1944. Natural potentials inwell logging. SPE- 944049-G. Trans., AIME, 155: 49-55.
Ortiz Jr., I., Osoba, J.S., and von Gonten, W.D. 1973. Relationship of theElectrochemical Potential of Porous Media with Hydrocarbon Saturation. TheLog Analyst 14 (2): 25-32. SPWLA 1973-vXIVn2a3.
Reppert, P.M. and Morgan, F.D. 2003a. Temperature-dependent streamingpotentials: 1. Theory. J. Geophys. Res. 108 (B11): 2546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002jb001754.
Reppert, P.M. and Morgan, F.D. 2003b. Temperature-dependent streamingpotentials: 2. Laboratory. J. Geophys. Res. 108 (B11): 2547. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002jb001755.
Revil, A. 1999. Ionic Diffusivity, Electrical Conductivity, Membrane andThermoelectric Potentials in Colloids and Granular Porous Media: A UnifiedModel. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 212 (2): 503-522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1998.6077.
Revil, A. and Cerepi, A. 2004. Streaming potentials in two-phase flowconditions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 (11): L11605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004gl020140.
Saunders, J.H., Jackson, M.D., and Pain, C.C. 2006. A new numerical model ofelectrokinetic potential response during hydrocarbon recovery. Geophys. Res.Lett. 33 (15): L15316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006gl026835.
Saunders, J.H., Jackson, M.D., and Pain, C.C. 2008. Fluid flow monitoring inoil fields using downhole measurements of electrokinetic potential.Geophysics 73 (5): E165-E180.
Schlumberger, C., Schlumberger, M., and Leonardon, E.G. 1934.Some Observations Concerning Electrical Measurements in Anisotropic Media andTheir Interpretations. Trans., AIME, 110: 159-182.
Shook, M., Li, D., and Lake, L.W. 1992. Scaling immiscible flow throughpermeable media by inspectional analysis. In Situ 16 (4):311-349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(93)91860-L.
Tang, G.Q. and Morrow, N.R. 1997. Salinity, Temperature, Oil Composition,and Oil Recovery by Waterflooding. SPE Res Eng 12 (4):269-276. SPE-36680-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36680-PA.
Tasaka, M., Morita, S., and Nagasawa, M. 1965. Membrane Potential inNonisothermal Systems. The Journal of Physical Chemistry 69(12): 4191-4197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/j100782a021.
Telford, W.M., Geldart, L.P., and Sheriff, R.E. 1990. AppliedGeophysics, second edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Traugott, M.O. 1972. Use of the SP Log in WaterfloodSurveillance. J Pet Technol 24 (2): 151-153. SPE-3570-PA.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3570-PA.
Vinogradov, J. and Jackson, M.D. 2011. Multiphase streamingpotential in sandstones saturated with gas/brine and oil/brine during drainageand imbibition. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38 (1): L01301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010gl045726.
Vinogradov, J., Jaafar, M.Z., and Jackson, M.D. 2010. Measurement ofstreaming potential coupling coefficient in sandstones saturated with naturaland artificial brines at high salinity. J. Geophys. Res. 115 (B12): B12204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010jb007593.
Worthington, A.E., Hedges, J.H., and Pallat N. 1990. SCA guidelines forsample preparation and porosity measurement of electrical resistivity samples:Part I—Guidelines for preparation of brine and determination of brineresistivity for use in electrical resistivity measurements. The LogAnalyst 31 (1): 20-28. SPWLA 1990-v31n1a3.
Wurmstich, B. and Morgan, F.D. 1994. Modeling of streaming potentialresponses caused by oil well pumping. Geophysics 59 (1):46-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1443533.
Wyllie, M.R.J. 1949. A Quantitative Analysis of theElectrochemical Component of the S.P. Curve. SPE-949017-G. Trans., AIME, 186: 17-26.
Wyllie, M.R.J. 1951. An Investigation of the Electrokinetic Component of theSelf-Potential Curve. In Transactions of the American Institute of Mining,Metallurgical, & Petroleum Engineers, Vol. 192, 1-18. Dallas, Texas:Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Wyllie, M.R.J., de Witte, A.J., and Warren, J.E. 1953. On the StreamingPotential Problem in Well Logging. SPE-1045-G. Trans., AIME, 213: 409-416.