Technical Evaluations to Support the Decision to Reinject Produced Water
- Elizabeth Zuluaga (Chevron) | Paul Evans (Chevron) | Peter Nesom (Chevron) | Tony Spratt (Multi-Chem) | Eric Daniels (Chevron)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- May 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 128 - 139
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.4 Scale, 3.2.6 Produced Water Management, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal
- souring, reinjection, water, scaling
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 820 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The industry is moving away from overboard discharging of produced water and is increasingly selecting produced-water reinjection (PWRI) as the preferred method for waterflooding projects. This does not come without risks because the produced water usually needs to be supplemented by seawater in order to meet injection-volume requirements, increasing the risk of both scaling and souring.
PWRI supplemented by seawater was the selected produced-water-management strategy for Field M located in West Africa. Produced water from the adjacent Field K is also being considered for reinjection into Field M. Field M will be waterflooded from the beginning to maintain reservoir pressure close to the bubblepoint. Recent experiences of PWRI in other assets have created a challenging atmosphere because scaling posed a major risk to production. Field M had to go through very detailed and thorough souring and scaling evaluations to justify the feasibility of this project.
A consistent formation-water chemistry analysis for these evaluations was obtained by incorporating thermodynamic equilibrium constraints on formation-water composition from reservoir mineralogy and using knowledge of basin formation-water contributions from proximal salt formations. The evaluation of scaling potential was performed using ScaleSoftPitzer. The results show a low risk of scaling when the waters are commingled. Periodic formation scale squeezes are recommended to mitigate the scaling potential.
The souring-potential study was conducted using a full-field reservoir-souring simulation model (SourSimRL). SourSimRL superimposes criteria for the generation, partitioning, and transport of H2S. On the basis of the results, the souring potential is predicted to be generally moderate. The souring potential for the field is restricted by the availability of carbon nutrients in the injection waters and the high reservoir temperature of 250°F.
These rigorous technical evaluations were instrumental to obtain the support for PWRI and could be used as guidance for other PWRI projects.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Bedrikovetsky, P., Mackay, E., Monteiro, R.P., Patricio, F., and Rosário,F.F. 2006. Injectivity Impairment Due to Sulfate Scaling During PWRI:Analytical Model. Paper SPE 100512 presented at the SPE International OilfieldScale Symposium, Aberdeen, 30 May-1 June. doi: 10.2118/100512-MS.
Calcium Sulphate Nucleation and Inhibition. 2008. Technical Report, BrineChemistry Consortium, Rice University, Houston, Texas (December2008).
Evans, R.C. 1994. Developments in Environmental Protection Related toProduced Water Treatments and Disposal (Produced Water Re-Injection). Paper SPE27179 presented at the SPE Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and GasExploration and Production Conference, Jakarta, 25-27 January. doi: 10.2118/27179-MS.
Jordan, M.M. and Mackay, E.J. 2005. Intergated Field Development ForEffective Scale Control Throughout the Water Cycle in Deep Water Subsea Fields.Paper SPE 94052 presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference, Madrid,Spain, 13-16 June. doi:10.2118/94052-MS.
Jordan, M.M., Collins, I.R., and Mackay, E.J. 2008. Low Sulfate SeawaterInjection for Barium Sulfate Scale Control: A Life-of-Field Solution to aComplex Challenge. SPE Prod & Oper 23 (2): 192-209.SPE-98096-PA. doi:10.2118/98096-PA.
Jordan, M.M., Sjuraether, K., Collins, I.R., Feasey, N.D., and Emmons, D.2001. Life Cycle Management of Scale Control within Subsea Fields and itsImpact of Flow Assurance, Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea Basin. Paper SPE71557 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, NewOrleans, 30 September-3 October. doi: 10.2118/71557-MS.
Mackay, E.J., Collins, I.R., Jordan, M.M., and Feasey, N.D. 2003. PWRI:Scale Formation Risk Assessment and Management. Paper SPE 80385 presented atthe International Symposium on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, 29-30 January. doi: 10.2118/80385-MS.
Rubiandini, R.R.S., Fitnawan, E.A., and Singh, K. 2002. Designing anInjection Program of Produced Water Re-Injection in Mature Fields. Paper SPE77837 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition,Melbourne, Australia, 8-10 October. doi: 10.2118/77837-MS.
Zuluaga, E. and Lake, L.W. 2005. Semianalytical Model for Water Vaporizationin Gas Producers. Paper SPE 93862 presented at the SPE Western RegionalMeeting, Irvine, California, USA, 30 March-1 April. doi: 10.2118/93862-MS.