Production-Induced Stress Change in and Above a Reservoir Pierced by Two Salt Domes: A Geomechanical Model and Its Applications
- Peter M.T.M. Schutjens (Shell International Exploration and Production BV) | Jeroen R. Snippe (Shell International Exploration and Production BV) | Hassan Mahani (Shell International Exploration and Production BV) | Jane Turner (Shell International Exploration and Production BV) | Joel Ita (Shell International Exploration and Production BV) | Antony P. Mossop (Shell International Exploration and Production BV)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- March 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 80 - 97
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.1.9 Four-Dimensional and Four-Component Seismic, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 3 Production and Well Operations, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal
- Rock compaction, Induced fractures, Wellbore stability, Geomechanical modelling
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- 974 since 2007
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Production decreases the pore-fluid pressure and increases the effective stress acting on the load-bearing-grain framework that makes up the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir deforms and compacts, and because it is connected to the rocks around it, there will be deformations and displacements in these rocks also. Well known geomechanical effects of production include surface subsidence, wells damaged by shear, and time shifts in 4D seismic. Less well known is how the changes in the stress field itself should be taken into account in operations - e.g., to design infill wells and to plan production stimulation by hydraulic fracturing or waterflooding of the reservoir.
We present a geomechanical model for the initial stress field and production-induced stress changes in and around a steeply dipping hydrocarbon reservoir penetrated by two large salt domes. The model integrates 3D seismic and geological understanding, geomechanical data from wells and analogues, and depletion patterns from fluid-flow (dynamic) simulation. Our model results confirm published models of principal-stress orientation in rocks pierced by salt domes. The depleted-model results show stress changes up to several MPa in magnitude compared with the preproduction stress state, but only limited changes in the stress orientations. The model highlights the influence of structural dip and time-dependent salt/sediment interaction on stress changes.
We then describe the application of the model in wellbore stress analysis for infill wells and in a water-injection scheme that has, we believe, been severely impacted by injection-induced fractures propagating in the reservoir from the injector wells toward the producer wells. We explain how the latter application uses a 3D flow-simulation model coupled to a dynamic fracture-propagation model. The geomechanical model provides key input: stress magnitude and stress orientation. Results are validated against a more conventional analysis of real-time pressure data.
In both applications, the integration of geomechanics in 3D static and dynamic models improved insight into the rock response to drilling and waterflooding, thus helping to optimize production.
|File Size||9 MB||Number of Pages||18|
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