Progress in Stratigraphic Seismic Exploration and the Definition of Reservoirs
- N.S. Neidell (Zenith Exploration Co.) | J.H. Beard (Zenith)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- May 1984
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 709 - 726
- 1984. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment
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Distinguished Author Series articles are general, descriptiverepresentations that summarize the state of the art in an area of technology bydescribing recent developments for readers who are not specialists in thetopics discussed. Written by individuals recognized as experts in the area,these articles provide key references to more definitive work and presentspecific details only to illustrate the technology. Purpose: to informthe general readership of recent advances in various areas of petroleumengineering.
The blending of exploration tools calling upon geology and geophysics hasproduced an approach to stratigraphic seismic exploration of great power in theidentification and definition of hydrocarbon reservoirs. From the geologicside, facies analysis used conventionally and with color-derived seismicdisplays scaled in velocity can suggest the most likely depositional models andthe associated lithology. Next, very detailed and precise velocity measurementsfrom the seismic data by means of the moveout relationship and independentlyfrom the reflection strength or seismic amplitude measure can confirm orcontradict a proposed model. When full consistency is established between thesecomponents and all other available data, then the exploration data have beenutilized fully. Furthermore, maps of velocity variation within proposedreservoir units can be developed to guide initial drilling, and aftercalibration with wells, to develop and operate the field. The full procedurealso surmounts certain fundamental limitations inherent in conventionalexploration technology and leads to new and exciting exploration plays. Thispaper illustrates all concepts and procedures with case studies andexamples.
Understanding Seismic Stratigraphic Exploration
Stratigraphic and Structural Traps. Many knowledgeable explorationists haverecognized the current shift in exploration emphasis from the quest for thesimple structural trap to stratigraphic traps. The special volume put togetherby Halbouty exemplifies the collective current view. The difference betweenstratigraphic and structural traps can be as clear as the difference between ananticline and a pinchout, or it may be quite subtle where both elements play arole. Structural traps may be complex in geometric terms or of gentleexpression. and so can become difficult to recognize and find. Stratigraphictraps, on the other hand, with or without the role of structure, by definitionentail greater subtlety. We can understand this point best by looking moreclosely at some of the mechanisms by which such traps are formed. Changes inlithology and porosity development by fracturing or diagenetic activity arejust some of the ways stratigraphic traps may develop. Conventional explorationtools often are taxed beyond their capability by the task of defining certainstratigraphic traps. The following discussion explains the nature of suchlimitations and formulates tools and procedures that can be used effectively todefine these exploration objectives. We also note that the technology used toattain this goal also has bearing on the delineation of hydrocarbonreservoirs.
Limits of Seismic Visibility. In recent times it has been fashionable todiscuss how thin a bed may be measured by the seismic method . More recently ina rather comprehensive discussion. Neidell showed that very thin beds indeedmay be defined with conventional seismic data, and several case studies havesince been published.
|File Size||13 MB||Number of Pages||18|