Limitations of Current Method-of-Characteristics (MOC) Methods Using Shock-Jump Approximations To Predict MMPs for Complex Gas/Oil Displacements
- Kaveh Ahmadi (University of Texas at Austin) | Russell T. Johns (Pennsylvania State University) | Kristian Mogensen (Maersk Oil Qatar A/S) | Rashed Noman (Qatar Petroleum)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 743 - 750
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2 Fluid Characterization, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State
- Miscibility, MMP, Mixing cell, MOC, Method of Characteristics
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 536 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
An accurate minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) is one of the key factors in miscible-gasflood design. There is a variety of experimental and analytical methods to determine the MMP, but the most-reliable methods are slimtube experiments, 1D slimtube simulations, mixing-cell models, and the fast key-tie-line approach using the method of characteristics (MOC). Direct comparisons of all these methods generally agree well, but there are cases in which they do not. No explanation has yet been given for these anomalies, although the MMP is critically important to recovery.
The focus of this paper is to explain when current MOC results assuming that shocks exist from one key tie line to the next may not be reliable, and how to identify when this is the case. We demonstrate, using fluid characterizations from Middle East oils, that the MMPs using this MOC method can be more than 6.500 psia greater than those calculated using a recently developed mixing-cell method. The observed differences in the MMP increase substantially as the API gravity of the oil decreases, likely the result of the onset of L1-L2-V behavior. We show that the key tie lines determined using this MOC method do not control miscibility for such cases. We explain the reasons for these differences using simplified pseudoternary models and show how to determine when an error exists. We also offer a way to correct the MMP predictions using the MOC for these complex gas/oil displacements without solving for the complete compositional path.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||8|
Ahmadi, K. and Johns, R.T. 2011. Multiple Mixing-Cell Method for MMPCalculations. SPE J. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116823-PA.
Bryant, D.W. and Monger, T.G. 1988. Multiple-Contact Phase BehaviorMeasurement and Application With Mixtures Of CO2 and Highly Asphaltic Crude.SPE Res Eng 3 (2): 701-710. SPE-14438-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14438-PA.
Christiansen, R.L. and Haines, H.K. 1987. Rapid Measurement of MinimumMiscibility Pressure With the Rising-Bubble Apparatus. SPE Res Eng2 (4): 523-527. SPE-13114-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13114-PA.
Clancy, M., Stewart, G., Thomson, A., Todd, A.C., and Varotsis, N.1986. Optimized Compositional Models for Simulation of EOR Process. Paperpresented at the Third European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Rome, 16-18April.
Cook, A.B., Walker, C.J., and Spencer, G.B. 1969. Realistic K Valuesof C7+ Hydrocarbon for Calculating Oil Vaporization During Gas Cycle at HighPressures. J Pet Technol 21 (7): 901-915. SPE-2276-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2276-PA.
Egwuenu, A.M., Johns, R.T., and Li, Y. 2008. Improved FluidCharacterization for Miscible Gas Floods. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (4): 655-665. SPE-94034-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94034-PA.
Firoozabadi, A. and Aziz, K. 1986. Analysis and Correlation of Nitrogen andLean-Gas Miscibility Pressure. SPE Res Eng 6 (1): 575-582.SPE-13669-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13669-PA.
Hutchinson, C.A. and Braun, P.H. 1961. Phase relations of miscibledisplacement in oil recovery. AIChE J 7 (1): 64-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.
Jarrell, P., Fox, C., Stein, M., and Webb, S.L. 2002. PracticalAspects of CO2 Flooding, No. 22. Richardson, Texas: Monograph Series,SPE.
Jaubert, J.N., Arras, L., Neau, E., and Avaullee, L. 1998b. ProperlyDefining the Classical Vaporizing and Condensing Mechanisms When a Gas IsInjected into a Crude Oil. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 37 (12):4860-4869.
Jaubert, J.N., Wolff, L., Avaullee, L., and Neau, E. 1998a. A VerySimple Multiple Mixing Cell Calculation to Compute the Minimum MiscibilityPressure Whatever the Displacement Mechanism. Ind.Eng. Chem. Res. 37 (12): 4854-4859.
Jensen, F. and Michelsen, M.L. 1990. Calculation of First Contact andMultiple Contact Minimum Miscibility Pressures. In Situ:Oil-Coal-Shale-Minerals 14 (1): 1-17.
Jessen, K. and Stenby, E.H. 2007. Fluid Characterization for Miscible EORProjects and CO2 Sequestration. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10(5): 482-488. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97192-PA.
Jessen, K. and Orr, F.M. Jr. 2007. On IFT Measurements to Estimate MinimumMiscibility Pressures. Paper SPE 110725 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110725-MS.
Jessen, K., Michelsen, M., and Stenby, E.H. 1998. Global approach forcalculating minimum miscibility pressure. Fluid Phase Equilib. 153 (2): 251-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(98)00414-2.
Johns, R.T. 1992. Analytical theory of multicomponent gas drives withtwo-phase mass transfer. PhD dissertation, Department of PetroleumEngineering, Stanford, California, Stanford University.
Johns, R.T. and Orr, F.M. Jr. 1996. Miscible Gas Displacement ofMulticomponent Oils. SPE J. 1 (1): 39-50. SPE-30798-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30798-PA.
Johns, R.T., Dindoruk, B., and Orr, F.M. Jr. 1993. Analytical Theoryof Combined Condensing/Vaporizing Gas Drives. SPE Advanced TechnologySeries 1 (2): 7-16. SPE-24112-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24112-PA.
Johns, R.T., Sah, P., and Solano, R. 2002. Effect of dispersion onlocal displacement efficiency for multicomponent enriched-gas floods above theminimum miscibility enrichment. SPE Res Eval & Eng 5(1): 4-10. SPE-75806-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75806-PA.
Lake, L.W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:Prentice Hall.
Larson, L.L., Silva, M.K., Taylor, M.A., and Orr Jr., F.M. 1989.Temperature Dependence of L1/L2/V Phase Behavior in CO2/Hydrocarbon Systems.SPE Res Eng 4 (1): 105-114. SPE-15399-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15399-PA.
Metcalfe, R.S., Fussell, D.D., and Shelton, J.L. 1973. A MulticellEquilibrium Separation Model for the Study of Multiple Contact Miscibility inRich-Gas Drives. SPE J. 13 (3): 147-155. SPE-3995-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3995-PA.
MMPz user manual. 2001. Portland, Oregon: Zick Technologies.
Mogensen, K., Hood, P., Lindeloff, N., Frank, S., and Noman, R. 2009.Minimum Miscibility Pressure Investigations for a Gas-Injection EOR Project inAl Shaheen Field, Offshore Qatar. Paper SPE 124109 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124109-MS.
Monroe, W.W., Silva, M.K., Larson, L.L., and Orr Jr., F.M. 1990.Composition Paths in Four-Component Systems: Effect of Dissolved Methaneon 1D CO2 Flood Performance. SPE Res Eng 5 (3): 423-432.SPE-16712-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16712-PA.
Neau, E., Avaullée, L., and Jaubert, J.N. 1996. A new algorithm forenhanced oil recovery calculations. Fluid Phase Equilib. 117 (1-2): 265-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(95)02962-1.
Orr, F.M. Jr. 2007. Theory of Gas Injection Processes. Copenhagen,Denmark: Tie-Line Publications.
Orr, F.M. Jr. and Jensen, C.M. 1984. Interpretation of Pressure-CompositionPhase Diagrams for CO2/Crude Oil Systems. SPE J. 24 (5):485-497. SPE-11125-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11125-PA.
Orr, F.M., Johns, R.T., and Dindoruk, B. 1993. Development ofMiscibility in Four-Component CO2 Floods. SPE Res Eng 8(2): 135-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22637-PA.
Pedersen, K.S., Fjellerup, J., Thomassen, P., and Fredenslund, A.1986. Studies of Gas Injected Into Oil Reserves by Cell-to-Cell SimulationModel. Paper SPE 15599 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, New Orleans, 5-8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15599-MS.
Peng, D.-Y. and Robinson, D.B. 1976. A New Two-Constant Equation of State.Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals 15 (1):59-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i160057a011.
Peng, D.-Y. and Robinson, D.B. 1978. The characterization of the heptanesand heavier fractions for the GPA Peng-Robinson programs. GPA Research ReportRR-28, Project 756, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (March 1978).
PennPVT 3.9. 2010. Gas Flooding Joint Industry Project,Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania (formerly at theUniversity of Texas at Austin).
Rao, D.N. 1997. A new technique of vanishing interfacial tension formiscibility determination. Fluid Phase Equilib. 139 (1-2):311-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(97)00180-5.
Sandler, I.S. 2006. Chemical, Biochemical, and EngineeringThermodynamics, fourth edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Seto, C. and Orr, F.M. Jr. 2009. Analytical Solutions for Multicomponent,Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media with Double Contact Discontinuities.Transport Porous Media 78 (2): 161-183.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-008-9292-y.
Stalkup, F.I. 1987. Displacement Behavior of the Condensing/Vaporizing GasDrive Process. Paper SPE 16715 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, Dallas, 27-30 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16715-MS.
Wang, Y. and Orr Jr., F.M. 1997. Analytical calculation of minimummiscibility pressure. Fluid Phase Equilib. 139 (1-2):101-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(97)00179-9.
Yellig, W.F. and Metcalfe, R.S. 1980. Determination and Prediction of CO2Minimum Miscibility Pressures. J Pet Technol 32 (1):160-168. SPE-7477-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7477-PA.
Yuan, H. and Johns, R.T. 2005. Simplified Method for Calculation of MinimumMiscibility Pressure or Enrichment. SPE J. 10 (4): 416-425.SPE-77381-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77381-PA.
Zhao, G.B., Adidharma, H., Towler, B., and Radosz, M. 2006a. MinimumMiscibility Pressure Prediction Using Statistical Associating Fluid Theory:Two- and Three-Phase System. Paper SPE 102501 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102501-MS.
Zhao, G.-B., Adidharma, H., Towler, B., and Radosz, M. 2006b. Using aMultiple-Mixing-Cell Model to Study Minimum Miscibility Pressure Controlled byThermodynamic Equilibrium Tie Lines. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 45 (23): 7913-7923. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie0606237.
Zick, A.A. 1986. A Combined Condensing/Vaporizing Mechanism in theDisplacement of Oil by Enriched Gases. Paper SPE 15493 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 5-8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15493-MS.