Multiphase Flow in Pipes
- Peter Griffith (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- March 1984
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 361 - 367
- 1984. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow
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Distinguished Author Series articles are general, descriptiverepresentations that summarize the state of the art in an area of technology bydescribing recent developments for readers who are not specialists in thetopics discussed. Written by individuals recognized as experts in the area,these articles provide key references to more definitive work and presentspecific details only to illustrate the technology. Purpose: to informthe general readership of recent advances in various areas of petroleumengineering.
Multiphase flow is found in many places. In the petroleum industry it occursin oil and gas wells, petroleum industry it occurs in oil and gas wells,gathering systems, many piping systems, and key pieces of equipment needed inrefineries and pieces of equipment needed in refineries and petrochemicalindustries, including boilers, petrochemical industries, including boilers,condensers, distillation towers, separators, and associated piping. Thisarticle focuses on two-phase flow in pipes. Though a lot-has been learned abouttwo-phase flow in the past 25 years, much of that knowledge has not beencollected in a convenient place. In particular, much work done for the nuclearplace. In particular, much work done for the nuclear industry remains unknownto the petroleum industry. The primary goal of this article is to describe thekinds of problems we are now able to solve and to point out where answers tothese problems can be obtained. When piping in which two phases are flowing isdesigned, a number of questions can arise, depending on the application: 1.What is the void fraction? 2. What is the pressure drop? 3. What is the liquidlevel? 4. What is the flow at a break? 5. How can one separate the phases? 6.Where will corrosion occur? 7. What is the wear rate caused by dropletimpingement? 8. What is the vibration of the pipes as a result of two-phaseflow? I shall begin by listing available books, then recommend flow-regime mapsand correlations for void, pressure drop, and critical flow, and finally touchon the problems of separation, corrosion, wear, and vibration.
Books on Two Phase Flow
Various books on two-phase flow contain answers for many of the problemsthat arise. Almost all of the following books describe homogeneous andseparated flow models for calculating void fraction and pressure drop, so Ishall mention only those features unique to each book. Wallis contains the mostcomplete mechanistic descriptions of void and pressure drop for the differentflow regimes. Hestroni has a unique section on flow instability and also thebest section on flow regimes. Collier is primarily a multi phase heat-transferbook but has a unique section on two-phase pressure drop in fittings. Hewittand Hall-Taylor collect and report more experimental observations on annularflow than any other source. Lahey and Moody have a unique section on chokedflow. Their description of the drift-flux model is excellent. Govier and Azizconsider both slurries and non- Newtonian fluid plus a wide variety of solid,liquid, and gas systems. Moore and Sieverding have design data on screen andchevron separators that are not reported elsewhere. Hsu and Graham considercryogens. Szilas has a design section on both pool and cyclone separators.
The unique feature of two-phase flow is the presence of flowregimes-descriptions of how the two phases are distributed in the pipe.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||7|