The Delta-Log, A Differential Temperature Surveying Method
- R.B. Basham (Westronics Inc.) | C.W. Macune (Westronics Inc.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- May 1952
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 123 - 128
- 1952. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 1.2 Wellbore Design
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Very small anomalies in oil well temperatures are detected and measured by recording the difference in temperature existing between two thermally sensitive elements which are spaced several feet apart on a small diameter carrier and lowered into the bore hole. The elements operate in a balanced electrical circuit, sending only a reference signal to the surface as long as normal gradient temperatures are encountered. When either element enters a temperature disturbance, the circuit is unbalanced and produces large recorder deflections for minute anomalies. The system is highly sensitive to small changes in thermal gradients caused by gas or fluid movements and to the boundaries between beds of different thermal conductivities. Typical logs show successful applications of the process to locating gas and water leaks in casing, gas entry, and gas-oil contact.
Temperature measurements in oil wells have been made for many years in the search for additional sub-surface data. It has been generally agreed that many conditions in the bore hole cause temperature anomalies which, if located and measured, could yield useful information. But it has been recognized also that many of the irregularities, such as those produced by small water and gas leaks in casing, might be very small and therefore difficult to detect with certainty. Although temperature measurements have been made which show anomalies of less than one degree deviation from normal gradient temperatures, the results are usually uncertain and unconvincing. The general practice, therefore, has been to apply temperature surveys only to well conditions known to produce appreciable disturbances, such as large gas movements and cement hydration.
The recent demand for additional data has focused attention on the problem of making dependable temperature measurements in the many instances when anomalies are small but none the less significant. It was for the purpose of detecting these minute irregularities in bore hole temperature that the program described in the following text was undertaken.
It is emphasized that this presentation is not offered as a complete study, for the process is still partially experimental. But it is believed that the results obtained thus far will be of interest to the industry and will indicate some of the system's potential usefulness.
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