Displacement Mechanism in Multi-Well Systems
- Loyd R. Kern (The Atlantic Refining Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- February 1952
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 39 - 46
- 1952. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 4.5 Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal
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A procedure for determining the behavior of a reservoir under a gas or water injection program was reported by Buckley and Leverett in 1942. This method, which allowed the calculation of the phase saturation distribution behind the front of a displacing fluid, has been extended to apply to a more general situation.
The reservoir may initially contain flowing quantities of the displacing fluid, or the fluid in the reservoir may be above saturation pressure so that solution effects are present. Production may occur behind the front as in the case of a well which is produced after breakthrough of the displacing fluid. The calculating procedure is simplified in that the graphical integration necessary to determine breakthrough saturation is eliminated by performing a direct integration and the graphical differentiation necessary to determine saturation distribution is eliminated by representing the displacing phase fraction of the flowing stream by an empirical equation. This representation results in simple expressions for the producing gas or water/oil ratio and cumulative production.
A method for the calculation of the saturation distribution behind the front (interface between the displaced and displacing phases in a gas injection or water flooding operation) was reported by Buckley and Leverett in 1942. The method leads to a curve for the saturation distribution which is double-valued; consequently, part of the curve was interpreted to be physically meaningless. That part of the curve which has physical significance was determined by a graphical integration (material balance).
In this paper it is shown that the integration may be performed analytically with a resulting equation for the saturation of the displacing phase at the front. The case in which the displacing fluid is initially flowing and the case in which the reservoir is initially above the saturation pressure so that some injected gas goes into solution are included in the integration. The calculations are considerably simplified by representing the fraction of the flowing stream which is oil by an exponential function of saturation.
The method is extended to apply approximately to reservoirs in which wells located between the injection well and the front are produced. An illustrative example utilizing the methods presented is included.
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