Enhanced Oil Recovery Through the Use of Chemicals-Part 2
- W.B. Gogarty (Marathon Oil Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- October 1983
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,767 - 1,775
- 1983. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 3.3.1 Production Logging, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 5.6.5 Tracers, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.8.6 Naturally Fractured Reservoir, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 6.3.6 Chemical Storage and Use, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.5.11 Formation Testing (e.g., Wireline, LWD), 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 4.3.4 Scale
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Distinguished Author Series articles are general, descriptiverepresentations that summarize the state of the art in an area of technology bydescribing recent developments for readers who are not specialists in thetopics discussed. Written by individuals recognized as experts in the area,these articles provide key references to more definitive work and presentspecific details only to illustrate the technology. Purpose: to informthe general readership of recent advances in various areas of petroleumengineering.
Where Do the Expensive Fluids Go?
Perhaps the most important question to be answered when designing a Perhapsthe most important question to be answered when designing a chemical EORprocess is, "Where do the expensive fluids go?" To answer this question,reservoir heterogeneities need to be considered since they affect vertical andareal conformance of fluids being injected. Injection profiles can be used toshow where fluids enter the reservoir through the profiles can be used to showwhere fluids enter the reservoir through the wellbore. Where zones areseparated, mechanical methods can be used to isolate them for flooding. Ifhigh-permeability zones with oil saturations are not isolated in the wellboreby shale or other lithological features, gelled polymer treatments may beeffective in providing a more uniform vertical distribution of fluids.Interference testing, use of tracers, and development of flood fronts withcomputer models are good diagnostic methods for predicting areal conformance.If injectivity tests show significant directional permeability, these resultsneed to be considered in locating wells. Injection and producing wells shouldbe placed parallel to the maximum permeability direction. Injection andproduction rates can be estimated by using results from computer models. Fig. 1shows tracer results from the southwest part of the M-1 project. Tritiatedwater was injected into Well E-5 before the start of project. Tritiated waterwas injected into Well E-5 before the start of micellar solution injection.Time lines are shown under some of the producing wells. The length of a timeline indicates how long samples were producing wells. The length of a time lineindicates how long samples were taken from a given producing well. Themagnitude of the radioactive tracer response at a given time is shown above theline. No tracer was detected in Wells F-4 and F-6, even though these are two ofthe four wells surrounding Injection Well E-5. Significant and lengthyresponses were observed in Wells D-4 and D-6. Responses in B-4 and D-2 aresignificant since both of these wells are outside the inverted five-spotserviced by Injection Well E-5. These tracer results indicate the degree ofheterogeneity that can exist in a reservoir. Application of an EOR processwithout understanding reservoir heterogeneity can lead to disastrous results.In the North Burbank tertiary recovery pilot, gelled polymer treatments wereused to correct vertical conformance problems. The location of this pilot isshown in Fig. 2. A profile of one of the injection wells of the North Burbankproject is shown in Fig. 3. On the left, the Burbank sand is defined byporosity as determined from a gamma-ray log. On the right, results from aninjection profile indicate a severe vertical conformance problem. Fig. 4 showstracer concentrations measured in one of the production wells of the NorthBurbank pilot. The results shown are before and after applying a gelled polymertreatment to one of the offsetting injection wells. Results indicate that thehigh transmissibility between the injection well and this producing well hasdecreased.
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