Laboratory Studies of a Pulsed Neutron-Source Technique in Well Logging
- J. Tittman (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.) | W.B. Nelligan (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- July 1960
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 63 - 66
- 1960. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment
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Refinements in radiation logging techniques during recent years have involved increasing usage of scintillation detectors. These detectors produce voltage pulses whose heights are related to the energies of the gamma rays which initiate them. Analysis of the gamma-ray spectrum, as indicated by the pulse heights, yields information about the chemical elements composing the formations surveyed. Refined scintillation counter techniques can furnish chemical information concerning earth formations in situ, from a study of the gamma-ray spectra emitted by the formation either naturally or as a result of neutron bombardment.
Accompanying the rising interest in gamma-ray scintillation spectroscopy, there has been increased activity in the development of accelerator-type neutron sources (in contrast to encapsulated chemical-mixture sources). Such neutron generators are attractive for several reasons: (1) they greatly reduce radiation hazards to personnel; (2) there is a great reduction in contamination danger if they are lost in the hole; (3) they can produce larger neutron intensities than can conveniently available encapsulated sources; and (4) they are capable of being pulsed, thus permitting new techniques in logging.
In the past, both accelerator and encapsulated neutron sources have been used by others in conjunction with scintillation-detector pulse-height analysis. The results have not been too encouraging, due to the interference among different gamma-ray spectral lines and to the fact that the gamma-ray peaks were not too clearly distinguishable above the large and ill-defined background "noise".
This paper is a status report on laboratory studies of a technique using a borehole accelerator as a neutron source, which gives an improved scintillation spectrum, thus permitting more accurate chemical analyses of the formations penetrated. The Schlumberger-accelerator neutron source is presented; the origins of inelastic and of thermal-neutron, capture gamma rays are discussed, and results are given for some laboratory measurements performed in borehole geometry.
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