Flood Water Analyses and Interpretation
- A. Richard Ellenberger (Bradford Laboratories) | James H. Holben (Bradford Laboratories)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- June 1959
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 22 - 25
- 1959. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 3.4.5 Bacterial Contamination and Control, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 3 Production and Well Operations, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
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With the advent of secondary recovery of oil by water injection, it was some years before much significance was attached to the importance of water analysis or the necessity for water treatment. Filtration of water came into practice when it became apparent that turbid water led to rapid plugging of injection wells. It was soon realized that most waters required more than filtration. Thus, it became evident that water analysis was necessary to determine the causes of corrosion and well plugging, to properly prescribe treatment to correct these ills, and to control and adjust the treatment as necessary after it was instituted.
Initial waterflood developments and the beginning of flood water analysis and treatment were in the Appalachian fields of Bradford, Pa., and Allegany, N. Y. Waterflood activity has moved to Western oil producing fields and is being practiced in most areas. Water analysis and water treatment have kept pace with this expansion.
Several petroleum engineering and oil operator groups have recently requested a discussion from the standpoint of "how to interpret a water analysis". Therefore, this discussion is aimed in that direction. A diagram showing experimental apparatus appears in Fig. 1 and results of filterability tests are shown in Figs. 2 and 3.
Initiating the Water Flood
The first problem to arise in planning a water flood involves what waters to use. More frequently, at least in a project of any size, it is a matter of using whatever water is available in sufficient quantity. If there is a choice of waters, then a survey of each supply is indicated. This should include an analysis of each possible source water with an eye toward the economics of treating each or a possible mixture. Also to be considered will be as complete a study as feasible on quantities available and procurement costs.
Once the water source is established the analysis is used to determine what type of treatment is necessary to provide a satisfactory injection water. The water plant should be designed to provide this treatment or any possible variations which may be encountered. It is rather surprising how often this order of procedure is reversed and the operator acquires a water plant before he learns what he must do to condition the water which is available.
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