Embedding a Petroelastic Model in a Multipurpose Flow Simulator To Enhance the Value of 4D Seismic
- John R. Fanchi (Chevron Energy Technology Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2010
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 37 - 43
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.1.9 Four-Dimensional and Four-Component Seismic, 7.1.5 Portfolio Analysis, Management and Optimization, 5.8.8 Gas-condensate reservoirs, 5.8.3 Coal Seam Gas, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 5.1.9 Four Dimensional and Four Component Seismic, 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 5.4.3 Gas Cycling
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Time-lapse (4D) seismic can be effectively integrated into the reservoir-management process by embedding the calculation of seismic attributes in a flow simulator. This paper describes a petroelastic model (PEM) embedded in a multipurpose flow simulator. The flow simulator may be used to model gas, black-oil, compositional, and thermal systems. The PEM can calculate reservoir geophysical attributes such as compressional-wave (P-wave) and shear-wave (S-wave) velocities and impedances, dynamic and static Young's moduli, and dynamic and static Poisson's ratios. Examples illustrate how to use the PEM to facilitate the integration of 4D seismic and reservoir flow modeling.
Time-lapse (4D) seismic is a comparison of two 3D-seismic surveys over the same spatial region at different points in time. Seismic attributes such as P-wave and S-wave velocities and impedances are obtained from each 3D-seismic survey. In some cases, changes in seismic attributes over time can be detected and related to reservoir performance. Two techniques can be used to incorporate this information into the reservoir-management process. One technique reads output from a flow simulator into a program that then calculates seismic attributes. Flow simulator output typically includes distributions of porosity, pressure, and saturations; rock and fluid compressibilities; and fluid densities. An alternative technique is to embed the calculation of seismic attributes in the flow simulator. Seismic attributes are calculated by a PEM using elastic constants and fluid properties. The second technique tightly integrates the flow simulator and the calculation of seismic attributes so that the technique ensures a consistent workflow, including presentation of results and improved execution performance.
Embedded PEMs can facilitate integration of 4D seismic in reservoir management; improve the overall efficiency of the 4D processing and interpretation cycle; better engage simulation engineers in the use of 4D seismic; and increase shelf life of production forecasts through better reservoir characterization and more reliable dynamic modeling. The resulting simulator can be used to improve reservoir characterization, help validate dynamic models, monitor fluid movement and thermal gradients, assess the feasibility of conducting a time-lapse seismic survey, determine the optimum time to schedule 3D-seismic surveys for use in time-lapse seismic studies, guide operational changes, place infill wells, and verify geologic sequestration of gases.
The concept of embedding a PEM in a flow simulator has been called integrated flow modeling (Fanchi 2000a, 2000b, 2006). Applications of the integrated flow model (IFM) concept to black-oil reservoirs, gas reservoirs, and coalbed methane reservoirs are described in the literature. This paper extends the IFM concept to compositional and thermal applications. The extension has been made possible by embedding a PEM in a multipurpose flow simulator with compositional and thermal capabilities. The algorithm presented here provides another significant extension of previous work by including a set of options for calculating Biot coefficients and effective pressure. The purpose of this paper is to describe the PEM and show how to enhance the value of 4D seismic in reservoir flow modeling.
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