Effects of Steam on Heavy Oil Combustion
- Alexandre Lapene (Total S.A.) | Louis Castanier (Stanford University) | Gerald Debenest (Institut de Mecanique des fluides de Toulouse) | Michel Yves Quintard (Institut de Mecanique des fluides de Toulouse) | Arjan Matheus Kamp (ADERA/CHLOE) | Bernard Corre (Total S.A.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 508 - 517
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 1,226 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
In-Situ Combustion. In-situ combustion (ISC) is an enhanced oil-recovery method. Enhanced oil recovery is broadly described as a group of techniques used to extract crude oil from the subsurface by the injection of substances not originally present in the reservoir with or without the introduction of extraneous energy (Lake 1996). During ISC, a combustion front is propagated through the reservoir by injected air. The heat generated results in higher temperatures leading to a reduction in oil viscosity and an increase of oil mobility. There are two types of ISC processes, dry and wet combustion.
In the dry-combustion process, a large part of the heat generated is left unused downstream of the combustion front in the burned-out region. During the wet-injection process, water is co-injected with the air to recover some of the heat remaining behind the combustion zone. ISC is a very complex process. From a physical point of view, it is a problem coupling transport in porous media, chemistry, and thermodynamics. It has been studied for several decades, and the technique has been applied in the field since the 1950s. The complexity was not well understood earlier by ISC operators. This resulted in a high rate of project failures in the 1960s, and contributed to the misconception that ISC is a problem-prone process with low probability of success. However, ISC is an attractive oil-recovery process and capable of recovering a high percentage of oil-in-place, if the process is designed correctly and implemented in the right type of reservoir (Sarathi 1999).
This paper investigates the effect of water on the reaction kinetics of a heavy oil by way of ramped temperature oxidation under various conditions.
Reactions. Earlier studies about reaction kinetic were conducted by Bousaid and Ramey (1968), Weijdema (1968), Dabbous and Fulton (1974), and Thomas et al. (1979). In these experiments, temperature of a sample of crude oil and solid matrix was increased over time or kept constant. The produced gas was analyzed to determine the concentrations of outlet gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and oxygen. This kind of studies shows two types of oxidation reactions, the Low-Temperature Oxidation (LTO) and the High-Temperature Oxidation (HTO) (Burger and Sahuquet 1973; Fassihi et al. 1984a; Mamora et al. 1993). In 1984, Fassihi et al. (1984b) presented an analytical method to obtain kinetics parameters. His method requires several assumptions.
|File Size||612 KB||Number of Pages||10|
Alexander, J.D., Martin, W.L., and Dew, J.N. 1962. Factors Affecting Fuel Availability andComposition During In-Situ Combustion. J. Pet Tech14(10): 1154-1164; Trans, AIME, 225. SPE-296-PA. DOI:10.2118/296-PA.
Bae, J.H. 1977. Characterizationof Crude Oil for Fireflooding Using Thermal Analysis Methods. SPE J.17 (3): 211-218. SPE-6173-PA. DOI: 10.2118/6173-PA.
Bagci, S. 1998. Estimation ofcombustion zone thickness during in situ combustion processes. Energyand Fuels 12 (6): 1153-1160. DOI:10.1021/ef980013m.
Bagci, S. 2006. Reactionkinetics of wet combustion of crude oils. Energy Sources, Part A:Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 28 (3) : 233-244.DOI:10.1080/009083190889997.
Bagci, S. and Kök, M.V. 2001. In-situ combustionlaboratory studies of Turkish heavy oil reservoirs. Fuel ProcessingTechnology 74 (2): 65-79. DOI:10.1016/S0378-3820(01)00213-2.
Benham, A.L. and Poettmann, F.H. 1958. The Thermal Recovery Process--AnAnalysis of Laboratory Combustion Data. J. Pet Tech 10 (9):83-85. SPE-1022-G. DOI: 10.2118/1022-G.
Bousaid, I.S. and Ramey, H.J. Jr. 1968. Oxidation of Crude Oil in PorousMedia. SPE J. 8 (2): 137-148; Trans, AIME, 243.SPE-1937-PA. DOI: 10.2118/1937-PA.
Brigham, W.E. and Castanier, L.M. 2004. In-situ combustion. In SPEHandbook.
Burger, J.G. and Sahuquet, B.C. 1973. Laboratory Research on WetCombustion. J. Pet Tech 25 (10): 1137-146. SPE-4144-PA. DOI:10.2118/4144-PA.
Dabbous, M.K. and Fulton, P.F. 1974. Low-Temperature-Oxidation ReactionKinetics and Effects on the In-Situ Combustion Process. SPE J.14 (3) : 253-262. SPE-4143-PA. DOI: 10.2118/4143-PA.
Fassihi, M.R., Brigham, W.E., Ramey, H.J. Jr., and Henry, J. 1984a. Reaction Kinetics of In-SituCombustion: Part 1--Observations. SPE J. 24 (4): 399-407.SPE-8907-PA. DOI: 10.2118/8907-PA.
Fassihi, M.R., Brigham, W.E., Ramey, H.J. Jr., and Henry, J. 1984b. Reaction Kinetics of In-SituCombustion: Part 2--Modeling. SPE J. 24 (4): 408-416.SPE-9454-PA. DOI: 10.2118/9454-PA.
Fassihi, M.R., Meyers, K.O., and Baslie, P.F. 1990. Low-Temperature Oxidation of ViscousCrude Oils. SPE Res Eng 5 (4): 609-616. SPE-15648-PA. DOI:10.2118/15648-PA.
Freitag, N.P. and Exelby, D.R., 1998. Heavy oil production by in situcombustion--Distinguishing the effects of the steam and fire fronts. J. Cdn.Pet. Tech. 37 (4) : 25-32.
He, B., Chen, Q., Castanier, L.M., and Kovscek, A.R. 2005. Improved In-Situ CombustionPerformance With Metallic Salt Additives. Paper SPE 93901 presented at theSPE Western Regional Meeting, Irvine, California, USA, 30 March-1 April. DOI:10.2118/93901-MS.
Kristensen, M.R., Gerritsen, M.G., Thomsen, P.G., Michelsen, M.L., andStenby, E.H. 2007. Efficient integration ofstiff kinetics with phase change detection for reactive reservoirprocesses. Transport in Porous Media 69 (3): 383-409. DOI:10.1007/s11242-006-9079-y.
Lake, L. 1996. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:Prentice Hall.
Lee, D.G. and Noureldin, N.A. 1989. Effect of water on thelow-temperature oxidation of heavy oil. Energy and Fuels 3(6): 713-715. DOI:10.1021/ef00018a009.
Mamora, D.D., Ramey, H.J., Brigham, W.E., and Castanier, L.M. 1993. Kineticsof in-situ combustion. Technical Report, DOE/BC/14600-51, US DOE, Washington,DC (July 1993).
Moore, R.G., Laureshen, C.J., Ursenbach, M.G., Mehta, S.A., and Belgrave,J.D.M. 1999. Combustion/ OxidationBehavior of Athabasca Oil Sands Bitumen. SPE Res Eval &Eng2 (6): 565-571. SPE-59483-PA. DOI: 10.2118/59483-PA.
Poettmann, F.H., Schilson, R.E., and Surkalo, H. 1967. Philosophy andtechnology of in-situ combustion in light oil reservoirs. Proc., SeventhWorld Petroleum Congress, Mexico City, April 1967.
Sarathi, P.S. 1999. In-Situ Combustion Handbook--Principles and Practices.Technical Report, DOE/PC/91008-0374, OSTI ID 3175, National PetroleumTechnology Office, US DOE, Tulsa, Oklahoma (January 1999).
Savitzky, A. and Golay, M.J.E. 1964. Smoothing and differentiation ofdata by simplified least squares procedures. Analytical Chemistry36 (8): 1627-1639. DOI:10.1021/ac60214a047.
Thomas, G.W., Buthod, A.P., and Allag, O. 1979. Experimental study of thekinetics of dry, forward combustion. Technical Report, BETC-1820-1, TulsaUniversity.
Urban, D.L. and Udell, K.S. 1990. The Effects of Steam on theCombustion of Oil on Sand. SPE Res Eng5 (2): 170-176;Trans, AIME, 289. SPE-18073-PA. DOI: 10.2118/18073-PA.
Verma, V.B., Reynolds, A.C., and Thomas, G.W. 1978. A Theoretical Investigation of ForwardCombustion in a One-Dimensional System. Paper SPE 7526 presented at the SPEAnnual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 1-3 October. DOI:10.2118/7526-MS.
Weijdema, J. 1968. Studies on the oxidation kinetics of liquid hydrocarbonsin porous media with regard to subterranean combustion. Erdöl u. KohleErdgas Petrochem (September 1968): 520-526.